
20221116: Are there Undiscovered Elements Beyond The Periodic Table?
 20:10: ... you know that’s another solution to the Fermi paradox  that the first civilization became cosmic ...
 20:32: Of course it’s exactly this thinking that gets you the dark forest solution to the Fermi Paradox.


20220914: Could the Higgs Boson Lead Us to Dark Matter?
 13:30: NordVPN is a cybersecurity tool that offers you a VPN solution for computer and mobile devices.


20220824: What Makes The Strong Force Strong?
 04:22: The only solution is that there must be some other property making them different, and that property must have three different possible values.


20220720: What If We Live in a Superdeterministic Universe?
 11:26: Others, like Sabine Hosenfelder, argue that superdeterminism is actually the cleanest solution to the EPR paradox.


20220615: Can Wormholes Solve The Black Hole Information Paradox?
 06:54: ... “westcoast” teams, used some of the insights of the AdS/CFT solution, but they don’t depend on its significant assumptions of ...


20220518: What If the Galactic Habitable Zone LIMITS Intelligent Life?
 01:07: ... which of course we’ve talked about before. But one possible solution is that the Sun and its planetary system are really quite ...


20220504: Space DOES NOT Expand Everywhere
 11:22: ... radiation at the event horizon of a black hole. Its solution takes us to the realm of the holographic principle, and so we can’t go ...


20220420: Does the Universe Create Itself?
 01:59: ... possible for separate observers to share a single, consistent reality? Solutions to this seeming paradox spanned the spectrum. For example, the Hungarian ...


20220330: Could The Universe Be Inside A Black Hole?
 06:05: It’s a white hole, and it’s a valid a solution to the Einstein equations.
 07:06: Now the white hole was “discovered” by messing around with the coordinates of the OG black hole solution by Karl Schwarzschild.
 08:56: But the OppenheimerSnyder solution gave our first insights into black hole formation.


20220323: Where Is The Center of The Universe?
 11:18: ... that Alexander Friedman came up with his solution for the shape of the universe by assuming that matter and energy are ...
 11:49: One of the alternative solutions was discovered by Georges Lemaitre, the L in the FLRW metric.
 12:02: He sought solutions to the Einstein equation for a universe that is lumpy on the largest scales.
 12:09: ... one of his solutions, matter was distributed with constant density across a spherically ...


20220216: Is The Wave Function The Building Block of Reality?
 05:09: ... is a linear equation  which just means that if you add together solutions to this equation, the result is also a solution to the equation. This is ...


20220119: How To Build The Universe in a Computer
 03:28: ... 3body problem doesn’t have an analytical solution  no simple master equations  which is why Holmberg had to solve ...


20220112: How To Simulate The Universe With DFT
 02:10: ... box or in a hydrogen atom, the different possible values of E that form solutions to this equation define the energy levels of the ...
 05:39: ... in quantum mechanics often means finding a solution to a problem that’s much simpler than the one you’re actually ...
 07:25: An equation is separable if the solution along one axis  in one dimension  doesn’t depend on the solutions on any other axis.
 09:41: And through a very mysterious quality of the quantum world, it's possible to map that fake solution to real answers.
 12:37: ... key is understanding that the final solution must be selfconsistent  basically, it has to obey the Schrodinger ...


20211210: 2021 End of Year AMA!
 00:02: ... kubiari um miguel a kubiary mexican physicist found this metric in a solution to einstein's equations that that that produces a field which is ...


20211117: Are Black Holes Actually Fuzzballs?
 04:07: While we’ve covered these black hole paradoxes before, and have even hinted at possible solutions  we’ve never actually solved them.


20211102: Is ACTION The Most Fundamental Property in Physics?
 00:02: ... millennium and a half following Heron for Pierre de Fermat to propose a solution for the case of refraction: what if light didn’t travel the path of ...


20211005: Why Magnetic Monopoles SHOULD Exist
 11:05: The hedgehog solution was figured out in 1974, simultaneously by Gerard t’Hooft and Alexander Polyakov.


20210623: How Quantum Entanglement Creates Entropy
 00:27: ... ingredient in solving the black hole information paradox—a solution that may one day unite quantum physics with ...


20210511: How To Know If It's Aliens
 00:24: ... living microbes. In one of these, samples were injected with a nutrient solution laced with radioactive carbon. The idea of this labeled release ...


20210421: The NEW Warp Drive Possibilities
 01:34: ... Trek in the 60s  and Star Trek inspired the very first real warp field solution to the Einstein field ...
 01:54: ... then the warp field solution looked like a very rigorous, carefully calculated work of pure fiction  ...
 03:29: It’s a sp acetime geometry that is a valid solution to the equations general theory of relativity. The Einstein Field Equation.
 03:54: The Alcubierre warp field may be a valid solution to the Einstein field equations, but that doesn’t mean it’s physically possible.
 06:51: These guys propose a general definition for warp fields not tied to a particular solution to the Einstein field equations.
 07:11: Bobrick and Martire is that no past warp solution has inbuilt mode of acceleration.
 08:14: But this acceleration isn’t actually derived from his warp field solution.
 09:11: Lentz claims to have found an actual superluminal warp field solution that does NOT require the impossible negative energy densities.
 09:19: He does this by exploring a broader family of solutions to the Einstein field equations than previous studies.


20210210: How Does Gravity Warp the Flow of Time?
 07:07: This seems paradoxical, but the solution is the same as it is for the twin paradox from our previous episode.


20210119: Can We Break the Universe?
 09:12: The solution to the ladder paradox also relies on the relativity of simultaneity.


20201027: How The Penrose Singularity Theorem Predicts The End of Space Time
 01:58: ... all, Schwarzschild’s solution didn’t say anything about HOW a clump of matter could reach ...
 03:18: ... a ring  but it was a singularity nonetheless. The Kerr solution was still highly symmetrical, so the same old arguments held ...


20201005: Venus May Have Life!
 14:02: ... last week we talked about postquantum cryptography  possible solutions to the impending cryptographycracking powers of quantum computers that ...


20200810: Theory of Everything Controversies: Livestream
 00:00: ... a hard problem it's a it's a welldefined problem there has to be a solution to that now and as lee said um that that was one of the starting ...


20200728: What is a Theory of Everything: Livestream
 00:00: ... seriously the idea that the that quantum gravity has more than one solution corresponding to some sort of uniform space with stuff in it then ...


20200527: Does Gravity Require Extra Dimensions?
 06:25: ... never detected these extra dimensions, they seem a promising potential solution to unifying gravity with the other forces  and in the process ...


20200518: Mapping the Multiverse
 09:49: Now we saw that in the Schwarzschild solution, a white hole exists in the past of a purely hypothetical eternal nonrotating black hole.


20200504: How We Know The Universe is Ancient
 16:15: ... can write down a solution to the Einstein equations in which the wormhole throat is short, and it ...


20200422: Will Wormholes Allow Fast Interstellar Travel?
 00:23: ... 1915, Karl Schwarzschild discovered a solution to Einstein’s brand new equations of general relativity  a solution ...
 00:42: ... systems, the gravitational hole described by the Schwarzschild solution was not a dead end. Rather it was a twosided funnel. But leading where? ...
 01:09: ... Einstein and Rosen imagined two regions described by the Schwarzschild solution not as parallel universes, but rather as overlapping layers of the same ...
 03:14: ... this classic depiction of the wormhole described by the Schwarzschild solution. ...
 06:35: ... Schwarzschild solution really represents two things  it accurately describes a nonrotating ...
 07:52: ... that would keep the throat of the wormhole open. But all of their solutions required a type of matter that simply may not exist. They needed a ...


20200331: What’s On The Other Side Of A Black Hole?
 05:49: ... full extent, we get what we call a maximally extended Schwarzschild solution  and it reveals strange new regions on the Penrose ...


20200324: How Black Holes Spin Space Time
 01:01: ... real black holes are particularly well described by Schwarzschild’s solution. That’s because the Schwarzschild black hole has no rotation. But all ...
 02:56: ... relativity is hard, and the spherical symmetry in the Schwarzschild solution eliminated a lot of complexity. Without that simplification the algebra ...
 03:27: ... we’re going to look at what the Kerr solution can tell us about the spacetime outside a rotating black hole. We’ll ...


20200211: Are Axions Dark Matter?
 03:35: One of the a proposed solutions to the strong CP problem is going to give us the axion.
 05:16: ... fine tuning. In 1977 Roberto Peccei and Helen Quinn proposed another solution: what if theta isn’t a constant, but can change in value, both over space ...
 06:32: ... the way, there is actually another solution to the strong CP problem its's that if any of the quarks are massless, ...


20200203: Are there Infinite Versions of You?
 12:29: Ilavenya rightly points out that no nice analytical solutions to the 3body problem exist in general relativity  Einstein's modern theory of gravity.
 12:40: The solutions only exist in special cases for Newtonian gravity.
 12:45: ...  forget three bodies, general relativity gives no perfect analytical solutions for TWO bodies in orbit around each ...
 13:09: ... said, approximate solutions work very well in some cases  for example if one of the masses is much ...
 13:24: Jordan Miller suggests that the Euler and Lagrange solutions to the three body problem are just 2 body solutions in disguise.
 13:49: ... is undisturbed, and in that case Jordan is correct. It's a two body solution. ...


20200120: Solving the Three Body Problem
 00:00: ... it's been solved many times, and in ingenious ways. Some of those solutions are incredibly useful, and some are incredibly ...
 00:20: ... simple. Despite the beauty of Newton’s equations, they lead to a simple solution for planetary motion in only one case  when two and only two bodies ...
 01:10: ... cases all motion becomes fundamentally chaotic  there exists no simple solution. This is the threebody problem, and we’ve been trying to solve it for ...
 01:24: ... does it mean to find a solution to the threebody problem? Newton’s laws of motion and his law of ...
 02:06: ... the case of two gravitating bodies, the solutions to Newton’s laws are just the equations for the path traveled by the ...
 02:39: ... after the Principia was published many sought simple, analytic solutions for more complex systems, with systems of three gravitating bodies being ...
 02:55: ... for many great mathematicians  but over the following three centuries, solutions have been found for very few specialized cases. Why? Well, in the late ...
 03:57: ... because the three body problem for the most part has no useful analytic solution, approximate solutions can be found. For example, if the bodies are far ...
 05:01: ... approximate solutions are useful, but ultimately fail to predict perfectly. Even the smallest ...
 05:25: ... the absence of an analytic solution doesn’t mean the absence of any solution. To get an accurate prediction ...
 06:20: ... the formation and evolution of entire galaxies. But these numerical solutions didn’t begin with the invention artificial computers. Before that, these ...
 06:43: ... limitations of approximate solutions, the laboriousness of precomputer numerical integration, and also the ...
 07:56: ... after Euler and Lagrange because to discover new specialized threebody solutions, we had to search the vast space of possible orbits using computers. The ...
 08:46: ... of these periodic solutions are incredibly complex, but Montgomery came up with a fascinating way to ...
 09:25: ... collapsed triangle  the 3bodies are in a straight line, as in Euler’s solutions. The poles are equilateral triangles  so, Lagrange’s solutions. All ...
 10:05: ... known  although it should be noted that besides the Euler and Lagrange solutions, none of these are likely to occur in ...
 12:00: ... Poincare stern proclamation, Finnish mathematician Karl Sundman found a solution to the general threebody ...


20191104: Why We Might Be Alone in the Universe
 03:19: Now, we’ve talked about the Fermi Paradox before, and some potential solutions.
 03:35: ... solution to the Fermi paradox is often expressed in terms of one or more great ...
 12:03: The Fermi paradox surely has a solution, and that solution may be that the galaxy is as empty as it looks.


20191021: Is Time Travel Impossible?
 07:05: One example is the Tipler cylinder, conceived by Frank Tipler based on a solution to the Einstein equations by Willem van Stockum.
 08:06: So it turns out that it’s not so hard to find solutions in general relativity with closed timelike curves.


20190806: What Caused the Big Bang?
 12:12: ... in cosmology and it also inspired other physicists to find even better solutions, mostly by changing the nature of the in flattened field so that allows a ...


20190715: The Quantum Internet
 09:27: ... have of course come up with a number of ingenious solutions, ranging from storing entangled photon quantum states in a cloud of ...


20190701: Thorium and the Future of Nuclear Energy
 02:49: ... volcanic activity or eventual crushing by Ice Age glaciers A possible solution to this nightmare waste disposal issue is to try to burn all of the ...


20190501: The Real Science of the EHT Black Hole
 10:33: ... then when black holes emerged from Karl Schwarzschild’s solution to the Einstein equations, they seemed like a deep abstraction – a ...


20190410: The Holographic Universe Explained
 02:47: Nice solution, but new paradox.


20190320: Is Dark Energy Getting Stronger?


20190313: Will You Travel to Space?
 05:46: [MATT] Let's take a look at what humanity's first private spacecraft looks like, and why it might be the solution to affordable space access.


20190306: The Impossibility of Perpetual Motion Machines
 11:48: I’m also going to post some of the best solutions to this challenge on Instagram – check ‘em out at matt_of_earth.


20190109: Are Dark Matter And Dark Energy The Same?
 02:47: That’s the solution to the Einstein equations that tells you the rate of acceleration of the expansion of the universe.
 09:31: ... fact that sinusoidal solution is only valid for the bit of the sine wave where the universe is ...


20181212: Quantum Physics in a Mirror Universe
 00:02: ... broke conservation of parity violation of parity conservation was the solution to the tell theta problem suggested by Yi and Liang in 1956 and for ...


20180920: Quantum Gravity and the Hardest Problem in Physics
 01:35: I'll save the solutions for future episodes.
 03:50: But that same Hawking radiation offers part of the solution to the information paradox.
 04:07: In a sense, both the source and the solution to the information paradox came from the discover of Hawking radiation.
 16:08: ... is skeptical about the 't Hooft solution to the black hole information paradox and cautions that we don't neglect ...


20180905: The Black Hole Entropy Enigma
 05:19: But if you paid attention to the whole information paradox bit, you might be able to think of a solution.
 10:16: But the real importance of this work wasn't the solution to some obscure conundrum.


20180801: How Close To The Sun Can Humanity Get?
 10:55: And they had a simple, obvious solution.
 11:03: ... the Maxwell's demon conundrum, doesn't necessarily mean that the solution isn't ...


20180620: The Black Hole Information Paradox
 01:13: And the quest for its solution may have completely overturned our understanding of the fundamental nature of the universe.
 05:21: One of the early solutions is the most outlandish but was strongly supported by Hawking.
 05:49: This solution to the paradox has been attributed to Freeman Dyson, who was championed by Hawking for many years.
 08:40: The solution began with physicist Gerard 't Hooft.
 11:05: We'll have to come back to this also and to the proposed solution, the blackhole firewall.


20180613: What Survives Inside A Black Hole?
 10:54: The solution to the information paradox is highly speculative, but it may reveal that black holes are more hairy than we thought.


20180523: Why Quantum Information is Never Destroyed
 12:49: ... he was surprised to learn that she had already worked out most of the solution but had put it by the wayside for more important ...


20180418: Using Stars to See Gravitational Waves
 01:24: Researchers are spending lots of brainpower trying to come up with new and creative solutions to explain this anomaly.


20180328: The AndromedaMilky Way Collision
 11:18: Your solutions were exactly correct.


20180321: Scientists Have Detected the First Stars
 01:01: We'll follow that, with the solution to our recent Trebuchet Challenge question.


20180131: Kronos: Devourer Of Worlds
 08:47: Mark Jeninga has a simpler solution.


20180124: The End of the Habitable Zone
 06:12: However, there is not yet a consensus on the exact solution to this paradox.
 06:18: Whatever the solution, life has found a way to exist on Earth for at least 3 and 1/2 billion years.


20171206: Understanding the Uncertainty Principle with Quantum Fourier Series
 06:09: The solution to the Schrodinger equation that contains all of the information about a quantum system.


20171102: The Vacuum Catastrophe
 08:34: A proposed solution is the anthropic one.


20170816: Extraterrestrial Superstorms
 11:50: Last week, we talked about John Archibald Wheeler's one electron universe idea as well as gave the solution to the Feynman diagram challenge.


20170810: The OneElectron Universe
 09:13: ... the fundamental nature of antimatter, let's go back and look at the solution to the Feynman diagram challenge ...


20170712: Solving the Impossible in Quantum Field Theory
 05:53: With infinite possible interactions behind this one simple process, a perfectly complete quantum field theoretic solution is impossible.


20170707: Feynman's Infinite Quantum Paths
 08:37: But Feynman's solution produced a quantum mechanics that didn't need fixing.


20170628: The First Quantum Field Theory
 07:06: Paul Dirac's solution was to not try to track the changing states of individual photons.
 13:50: ... points out, the resulting Klein Gordon equation gives negative energy solutions just like the Dirac equation does, but Schrodinger didn't know how to ...


20170621: AntiMatter and Quantum Relativity
 09:13: Paul Dirac's negative energy solutions describe antimatter, not holes in the Dirac sea.
 10:06: They are two sides of the same coin, positive and negative energy solutions of the same type of vibration in the electron field.


20170405: Telescopes on the Moon
 02:58: Even clever solutions like the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope's folding mirrors still have a limit.
 09:03: ... we can meet its distant challenges with creative solutions, perhaps the moon will become the Earth's lookout tower, granting the ...


20170329: How Time Becomes Space Inside a Black Hole
 02:56: This comes from Karl Schwarzschild's solution to the Einstein field equations, the very first accurate description of a black hole.


20170119: The Phantom Singularity
 11:19: Actually, Einstein's theory and the Schwarzschild solution that is derived from it suggests it must exist.


20170104: How to See Black Holes + Kugelblitz Challenge Answer
 05:21: We become aware of the problem and develop two possible solutions.


20161221: Have They Seen Us?
 13:08: I want to give a very special shoutout to Luna IT Solutions, who are sponsoring us at the quasar level.


20161208: What Happens at the Event Horizon?
 10:47: ... complete mathematical solution for a Schwarzschild black hole has two additional regions, one ...
 18:08: ... was a simplified version of what was to be a much more intricate double solution theory in which the socalled particle was actually a matter wave itself ...
 18:34: ... Broglie never completed his full double solution theory, but did work on it intermittently throughout his life and was ...


20160929: Life on Europa?
 11:50: ... a couple of others point out that John Stewart Bell had another possible solution to this whole seeming paradox that is super ...


20160914: SelfReplicating Robots and Galactic Domination
 11:33: ... Cobra60six would maybe like us to talk about more doable energy solutions like thorium power ...
 11:57: But there are several solutions, and safer nuclear power maybe thorium could be an answer.
 12:03: But even solar power stations at Earth's surface will soon be a viable solution for most of our current energy needs.


20160907: Is There a Fifth Fundamental Force? + Quantum Eraser Answer
 03:59: OK, on to the solution to the quantum eraser challenge.


20160810: How the Quantum Eraser Rewrites the Past
 09:15: In fact, the solution may lie in this fascinating phenomenon of quantum entanglement.


20160720: The Future of Gravitational Waves
 00:09: That's what I'm going to do now and following that, I'll get to the solution to the nuclear physics challenge question.


20160608: New Fundamental Particle Discovered?? + Challenge Winners!
 04:39: OK Time for the solution to the dark energy challenge question.
 12:36: The solutions to both parts of the question are linked in the description.


20160601: Is Quantum Tunneling Faster than Light?
 10:47: ... that episode we'll also be giving the solution to the dark energy challenge question, as well as telling you about some ...


20160511: The Cosmic Conspiracy of Dark Energy Challenge Question
 06:20: Feel free to propose any solutions you come up with for this apparent cosmological coincidence.


20160504: Will Starshot's Insterstellar Journey Succeed?
 02:51: The solution is lasers.
 02:54: The solution is so often lasers.


20160217: Planet X Discovered?? + Challenge Winners!
 01:31: ... ran the exhaustive computer simulations and found a single compelling solution, a very, very distant giant planet, with a mass well over 10 times that ...


20151125: 100 Years of Relativity + Challenge Winners!
 00:03: Today we have a solution to our killer asteroid challenge episode, but before we get to that there's something very special about today.


20151111: Challenge: Can you save Earth from a Killer Asteroid?
 02:41: We'll select five random correct answers to receive PBS Digital Studios tshirts, and I'll have the solution for you in a couple of weeks.


20151028: Is The Alcubierre Warp Drive Possible?
 00:45: ... mathematical language of Einstein's theory of general relativity, a real solution to the equations of GR that would actually allow faster than light ...
 02:16: But if you're cheeky, you can actually just make up a solution to the equations of GR without starting with a real mass/energy distribution.
 04:46: ... are some proposed solutions, one of which is to lay down the external negative energy conditions ...
 05:46: ... that we're just making up solutions to the Einstein equations, we could even shrink down the warp bubble ...


20150827: Watch THIS! (New Host + Challenge Winners)
 01:55: So you can see a complete algebraic solution, and I encourage you to look at it by going down to this link, which is also down in the description.
 02:02: But a lot of you did submit algebraically correct complete solutions, from which we selected five randomly to win a Tshirt.
 05:00: Some of you might be daunted by the general relativity solution.
 05:05: But remember, the Newtonian solution is also there.


20150812: Challenge: Which Particle Wins This Race?
 05:45: We'll announce the solution in two weeks' time.


20150617: How to Signal Aliens
 01:27: ... they suggested that the optimal solution would be a phased array of many radio telescopes sending narrow pulses ...


20150429: What's the Most Realistic Artificial Gravity in SciFi?
 01:16: And no, for technical reason, I don't think dark energy would be a solution to this problem.


20150325: Cosmic Microwave Background Explained
 06:00: ... the solution is to have two flywheels, both with forwardpointing angular momentum ...
