
20221208: How Are Quasiparticles Different From Particles?
 07:21: You can think of sound as a coherent beam of phonons, like a laser, while heat is a random buzz of phonons.
 09:49: But of course we have them pesky phonons, which at any significant temperature just add up to a lot of random jiggling of the atoms  AKA heat.
 10:22: Very low temperature means few random, noisy phonons.


20221123: How To See Black Holes By Catching Neutrinos
 18:11: While you can trust much of what I say, there are a few areas where you should not entirely rely on some random astrophysicist on YouTube.


20221116: Are there Undiscovered Elements Beyond The Periodic Table?
 17:35: ... that all other things equal, an observer should reason as if they are randomly selected from the set of all actually existent(past, present and future) ...


20221109: What If Humanity Is Among The First Spacefaring Civilizations?
 19:08: ... Martinez asks if there’s a problem using a random number generator to decide measurement direction, considering that true ...


20221026: Why Did Quantum Entanglement Win the Nobel Prize in Physics?
 09:33: Aspect found a way to randomize measurement direction without moving the polarizers at all. The trick was to use a type of transducer.
 09:54: ... electrical switch  a switch that could be turned on and off quickly and randomly in the tiny interval between the creation of the photon and their ...
 11:00: But what if the random number generator wasn’t really random?
 11:05: ... all, signals could have travelled to both the calcium atom and the random number generator from some common influence, causing them to ...
 11:16: ... the particles are not only correlated with each other, but also with the random number generator or the physicist choosing the measurement ...


20220928: Why Is 1/137 One of the Greatest Unsolved Problems In Physics?
 08:41: Many physicists believe that these constants were set more or less randomly at the beginning of the universe.
 12:17: ... about it this way  if the constants of nature were set randomly at the big bang, and were set independently to each other  then ...


20220817: What If Dark Energy is a New Quantum Field?
 00:36: ... vacuum of space has a constant energy density. Empty space buzzes with random activity that we sometimes describe as virtual particles popping into ...


20220803: What Happens Inside a Proton?
 10:18: ... method in which you do your calculation based on randomized selections from some ...
 10:43: ... we randomly choose a selection of field configurations of a pixelated ...
 16:44: ... gloves, put them in separate sealed boxes and give one to a friend randomly. When you look in your box and see that it’s the left glove ...


20220720: What If We Live in a Superdeterministic Universe?
 10:06: It assumes that Alice and Bob can choose with absolute freedom, or that if they choose randomly, that their random number generator is perfect.
 12:35: ... “random” color of individual photons of that light was used in place of a random ...


20220615: Can Wormholes Solve The Black Hole Information Paradox?
 04:44: ... the nohair theorem, Hawking radiation should be completely random. It should contain no information about anything besides the ...


20220601: What If Physics IS NOT Describing Reality?
 05:53: ... deflected left or right  its undefined leftright spin chooses randomly between the two because it contains no information about its ...


20220525: The Evolution of the Modern Milky Way Galaxy
 02:19: ... envelopes  an elongated spheroid of stars that all orbit randomly at different angles. All of this is surrounded by the ...


20220427: How the Higgs Mechanism Give Things Mass
 05:38: ... These magnets have high temperature which makes them move randomly, but as the system cools down this random thermal motion gets ...
 06:43: ... but if the ball starts at the top of the hill it will randomly roll down into one valley. Now the current state of the ...
 11:02: ... of this little hill, but then quickly roll down in a random direction. The new state of the field would not be symmetric to ...
 12:26: ... states. The universe will just have chosen one state randomly. But the field can also oscillate along the base of the valley in ...


20220420: Does the Universe Create Itself?
 01:59: ... have a cat in a closed box that is either killed or not killed by a random quantum process. For a scientist running the experiment, the cat is in a ...
 05:56: ... we add a pair of detectors we see that each photon randomly arrives in detector 1 or detector 2, revealing whether it was ...
 08:42: ... with. Instead, she answers the quest ions as they come, maybe completely randomly, maybe according to some secret pattern. Every answer narrows the space ...


20220323: Where Is The Center of The Universe?
 00:25: ... the cosmos until Nicolaus Copernicus shoved us from our pedestal onto a random rocky planet orbiting an ordinary star in the outskirts of an ...
 07:27: Now imagine that 2D dweller points at a random direction.
 08:27: ... you can still point at the Big Bang by pointing in a random direction, because the line traced from you finger also ends up at the ...


20220223: Are Cosmic Strings Cracks in the Universe?
 04:51: ... jiggle would send the ball, or the Higgs, rolling down in a random direction. And that’s what happened. Here and there ...
 05:59: ... field formed strings. Remember that the vacuum decayed in a random direction towards this circular valley. That means we can ...


20220216: Is The Wave Function The Building Block of Reality?
 06:22: ... of this nonlinear action as a rare and random hit that the wave function takes at a particular location. That hit ...
 08:02: ... In CSL, physicists imagined that the localizing mechanism was a randomly jiggling field, like the frenetic Brownian motion of pollen grains ...
 09:25: ... in the Schrödinger equation, causing the wave function to rapidly and randomly choose to make the object appear either “here” or “there,” but not ...
 11:09: ... For example, the models imply that a quantum wave function will be randomly tossed about and jostled by gravity or some other collapsing field. If ...
 18:37: ... its original formulation Hawking radiation is supposed to be completely random  information free  and so that when a black hole evaporates all the ...


20211117: Are Black Holes Actually Fuzzballs?
 03:17: ... previously, but the TL;DW is that Hawking radiation should be completely random, and so leaks away the black hole’s mass without any of the information ...


20211102: Is ACTION The Most Fundamental Property in Physics?
 08:39: ... with some being more probable than others. The particle then appears to randomly select a position from that ...


20211020: Will Constructor Theory REWRITE Physics?
 12:30: ... particles even travel at all or do their wave functions just randomly tunnel every which way so that their apparent path is ...


20210818: How Vacuum Decay Would Destroy The Universe
 10:10: ... only a very small probability that a bubble of true vacuum will randomly form that’s large enough to actually continue growing. ...


20210810: How to Communicate Across the Quantum Multiverse
 17:57: ... Asimov attribution first appeared in fortune, a random quote generator program in UNIX  so a totally reliable source. I got ...


20210721: How Magnetism Shapes The Universe
 06:29: The light gets polarized  which means the direction of its electric and magnetic fields pick up a preferred direction rather than being random.


20210713: Where Are The Worlds In Many Worlds?
 04:04: ... measurements appear to be randomly selected based on the current state of the wavefunction  more likely ...
 05:22: ... only the outcome that was measured  and that value is selected randomly, but weighted by the premeasurement ...
 05:42: ... causes this random selection is not the Schrodinger equation  it’s something extra, and ...


20210707: Electrons DO NOT Spin
 05:37: ... field should be deflected by less. So a stream of silver atoms with randomly aligned magnetic moments is sent through the magnetic ...
 06:10: ... maximum, but most deflected somewhere in between due to all the random orientations. But that's not what’s observed. Instead, the atoms ...
 15:09: ... Randomaited asks the following: If entropy only increased over time, which implies ...


20210623: How Quantum Entanglement Creates Entropy
 07:44: ... state. Rather it changes the quantum state in a random way  now 100% heads or 100% tails, but the information ...


20210616: Can Space Be Infinitely Divided?
 02:38: ... number comes out pretty small  around 10^35 m. But why is this randomseeming combination of constants so important? Well, it represents the ...


20210519: Breaking The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
 09:05: Less flickering due to random phase shifts means that we can see real signals due to much weaker gravitational waves.


20210421: The NEW Warp Drive Possibilities
 18:08: ... number of worlds where the freezing of cryptochrome quantum states randomly failed in all avian ...


20210407: Why the Muon g2 Results Are So Exciting!
 09:14: There's roughly a one in 10,000 chance that random fluctuations could lead to that degree of difference just by chance.
 09:25: For fivesigma, there's only one in 3.5 million chance of random noise resulting in the same signal.
 10:35: It really was just a random statistical fluctuation.
 11:00: The chance of randomly getting a 4.2 fluctuation is just a little over one in a 100,000.


20210112: What Happens During a Quantum Jump?
 00:36: ... comes from the idea that electrons in atoms jump randomly and instantaneously from one orbit or energy level to another, without ...
 02:41: Copenhagen describes transitions in quantum states as fundamentally random  the dice are rolled, and the system transitions instantaneously.
 04:34: It was a reaction against one of the central tenants of Copenhagen  that subatomic phenomena are fundamentally random, or probabilistic.
 06:46: If the electron then falls back to level 1 it should emit an identical photon in a random direction.
 08:02: And the downward jumps when the electron decayed out of level 3 appeared to occur at completely random times.
 08:16: ... the jump appeared random, there was no way to tell whether it was instantaneous, or whether the ...
 09:55: But what about the randomness of the event?
 09:57: Well, the spacing between events did appear to be random, as Bohr thought.
 10:19: ... driven by an underlying deterministic mechanism, rather than fundamental randomness. ...
 12:06: ... and perhaps even whether the quantum world is built upon fundamentally random processes, or is driven by rigidly deterministic mechanic of space ...


20201208: Why Do You Remember The Past But Not The Future?
 06:45: ... pass through in exactly the right way to erase their tracks, seemingly random quantum jiggling ejects these embedded clumps, and so on, until we’re ...
 12:23: ... of matter and energy in the early universe does appear to have been random  which we normally associate with high ...
 13:18: Ryan Christopherson asks whether the random nature of quantum mechanics isn’t a larger hurdle to the reversibility of time than entropy.
 13:33: ... answer is that yes, IF quantum mechanics is fundamentally random, and IF the wavefunction collapse is a random rather than deterministic ...
 13:47: ... personally don’t hold with random collapse interpretations, and at any rate invoking random collapse ...


20201118: The Arrow of Time and How to Reverse It
 03:53: ... shared out and it would stay shared out. It’s very unlikely that through random collisions, half the electrons would get all the energy and the other ...
 04:13: ... if you start from a situation where energy is not perfectly randomly spread out, then over time it’ll become more spread out. Entropy ...
 05:10: ... particles in one spot in the available space. Let’s give those particles random velocities and see what happens in the following time steps.Even though ...
 05:43: ... this look like going backwards in time? Uh, exactly the same actually. Random velocity directions will tend to spread this cluster apart in both time ...
 06:57: ... decrease very occasionally and, typically, on very small scales due to random alignments of particle trajectories or however else energy is moving ...
 07:17: ... particles across our universe  in the form of galaxies  we don’t see random motion. We see galaxies racing away from each other, which means they ...
 08:11: ... in time to this original “special” slice, at which velocities are all random, and keep tracing out the other side then you should see entropy ...
 11:16: ... as the universe evolves. But we can think of that initial event as a random number generator whose gigantic store of random numbers are then used ...


20201111: Can Free Will be Saved in a Deterministic Universe?
 02:26: ... the outcomes of quantumscale events are fundamentally random or the outcomes of quantum events are perfectly determined by quantum ...
 04:45: ... mechanistic process, whether that process is deterministic or random. ...
 05:47: The Copenhagen interpretation insists that the apparent randomness of quantum events is really random.
 06:08: ... idea of random processes driving our choices doesn't really sound like free will, so is ...
 06:32: ... bit of information being intentionally, say, a one or a zero rather than randomly a one or a ...
 06:46: ... arises within our packet, within our brain, then either it itself is random or has its own causing thread whose origin is either in our brain and ...
 07:12: The only way for new information to come from a closed region is for it to be generated randomly within that region.
 07:19: On the surface, the idea of randomly generating new streams of quantum information within a brain doesn't seem to help the cause of free will.
 08:16: ... go into making it, either in principle or in practice, because unknown random processes are at work, and/or perfect measurement is not possible for ...
 09:24: By the way, there's also evidence to indicate that brain activity utilizes the random fluctuations of neuronal activity to make certain decisions.
 09:33: In other words, a certain type of randomness may be a feature of the brain, an item in its mechanistic toolbox.
 09:40: ... the allknowing Laplace demon may be out of luck, especially if quantum randomness or quantum indeterminacy is magnified to brainlevel ...
 11:37: ... generating this phenomenon, which is founded in either deterministic or random processes, then the phenomenon is an ...


20201104: Electroweak Theory and the Origin of the Fundamental Forces
 10:03: ... the Curie temperature  thermal energy causes the particles to rotate randomly so the overall magnetization of the material is ...
 10:30: Even though the equations of motion say one direction is not preferred to the other, the ground state has randomly picked out a single direction.


20201027: How The Penrose Singularity Theorem Predicts The End of Space Time
 13:38: ... when a boltzmann brain is the simplest explanation.” You’re just random particles accidentally assembled from the void with ...


20201020: Is The Future Predetermined By Quantum Mechanics?
 04:23: ... quantum mechanics but at the moment of measurement, a single reality is randomly selected from the distribution of possible ...
 05:17: The illusion of randomness is that we find ourselves in the one branch of the wave function, corresponding to the reality we perceive.
 05:25: But we aren't randomly placed in that branch, we just are a part of that branch.


20200908: The Truth About Beauty in Physics
 14:22: ... although those atoms to reemit the absorbed energy, they do so in random directions AND potentially through a cascade of energy level drops that ...


20200728: What is a Theory of Everything: Livestream
 00:00: ... brain there right there would be if everything just looked completely random you couldn't make any predictions anyway so why have a brain uh so ...


20200504: How We Know The Universe is Ancient
 04:40: ... away from us due to the expansion of the universe  they also have random motion as they’re tugged by the gravitational fields of nearby galaxies ...


20200428: Space Time Livestream: Ask Matt Anything
 00:00: ... and the radiation produced by black holes would be this totally random thermal glow okay of radiation which should contain none of the ...


20200414: Was the Milky Way a Quasar?
 09:54: A mini AGN phase is triggered either by an influx of gas or by a random massive star getting too close to the black hole.


20200324: How Black Holes Spin Space Time
 12:36: ... massively multiplayer online game, where players can battle others at random or play cooperative battle types, battling against bots or in a ...


20200316: How Do Quantum States Manifest In The Classical World?
 03:12: ... you’d expect for a classical spinning object. Instead the electron will randomly shift ot having left or right ...
 15:50: ... of "yourself". If by that you mean any given version of you chosen randomly from all possible future timelines  then yes, chances are that version ...
 16:29: ... an entropy fluctuation large enough to produce a new big bang? Could a random perfect alignment of all particle trajectories produce a big bang ...


20200303: Does Quantum Immortality Save Schrödinger's Cat?
 02:33: ... a totally random 5050 chance of the radioactive decay over a certain period of time  ...


20200224: How Decoherence Splits The Quantum Multiverse
 08:05: ... by those particles, and so the wavefunction leaving that slit picks up a random phase offset compared to the other ...
 08:18: ... that emerging wavefunction can still interfere with itself  the random phase offset would just shift the pattern left or right for that ...


20200211: Are Axions Dark Matter?
 05:16: ... ended up very close to zero just by chance, but physicists hate using random chance to explain the precise refinement of a value  what they call ...


20200203: Are there Infinite Versions of You?
 01:15: ... heard the old thought experiment  if an infinite number of monkeys tap randomly on an infinite number of typewriters, eventually one of them will ...
 01:30: The reasoning is simple enough: assume each monkey is tapping at all keys randomly.
 03:38: The properties of each region are effectively random  set in the beginning of the universe by quantum processes.
 08:40: For example, you could argue that fundamental quantum randomness will cause even identical starting configurations to produce different results.
 09:00: In fact, quantum randomness could allow different starting conditions to evolve into a universe that looks like this one.
 11:31: Turns out monkeys don’t hit all keys randomly.


20200120: Solving the Three Body Problem
 10:30: ... thing about chaotic motion is that the state of the system seems to get randomly shuffled over time. The motion is actually perfectly deterministic  ...


20200113: How To Capture Black Holes
 04:50: ... of stellar mass black holes? The orbits of those black holes are mostly random, so the swarm forms a spheroid a few light years across. The accretion ...


20191217: Do Black Holes Create New Universes?
 02:10: ... fundamental constants of the daughter universes are shifted slightly and randomly from their parent  mutations are ...
 04:34: ... one thing: what if, when universes reproduces, the constants aren’t randomly reconfigured but rather change only slightly  analogous to a small ...
 05:24: ... given universe may not be totally optimal because its constants varied randomly from its parent  in the same way that any given living organism isn’t ...
 15:20: ... point is if any given individual assumes that we're randomly sample from all generations who thought about the doomsday argument then ...
 15:41: Rather, it's that it's not at all clear that it's reasonable to count ourselves as "randomly selected" from all of the users of the doomsday argument.


20191209: The Doomsday Argument
 04:15: ... “All other things equal, an observer should reason as if they are randomly selected from the set of all actually existent observers (past, present ...
 09:51: ... and doomlate are both thought of as existent, so that you can be randomly plucked from one  in the same way the two boxes ...
 10:07: ... presumably only one is true and you weren’t randomly plucked from it  you just are what you are  a being with a mental ...


20191202: Is The Universe Finite?
 08:46: A random distribution of blobs ends up with slight clusterings.
 09:19: ... a flat universe would look like a positively curved universe just due to random ...
 14:35: ... do you choose the sample of observers from which you consider yourself randomly ...


20191118: Can You Observe a Typical Universe?
 07:25: There are more typical environments than nontypical ones, so pick a random environment and its probably typical.
 09:08: ... the assumption that our universe resulted from a simple random fluctuation in an otherwise highentropy cosmos, the anthropic principle ...
 09:23: Apparently we aren’t, and so we can probably rule out a simple random entropy fluctuation as a sufficient explanation for our big bang.
 10:08: ... that “All other things equal, an observer should reason as if they are randomly selected from the set of all actually existent observers (past, present ...
 15:26: ...  perhaps the dials defining the fundamental constants were neither randomly set nor deliberately ...


20191104: Why We Might Be Alone in the Universe
 00:38: The anthropic principle tells us that we shouldn’t expect to find ourselves in some random corner of the multiverse  there’s an observer bias.


20190903: Is Earth's Magnetic Field Reversing?
 02:32: In fact these flips seem to be pretty random events.
 07:13: Well, actually ANY weak field – even random bits of field – for example thermal fluctuations  are enough to initiate this runaway effect.
 08:50: ... magnetic field were switched off entirely, it would reestablish itself randomly, with the north and south magnetic poles aligned either one way or the ...
 09:18: It then builds up again, choosing its direction randomly.


20190819: What Happened Before the Big Bang?
 04:02: The random nature of this version of inflaton decay means that many such bubbles should form, ie. multiple universes exist.
 05:07: But it wouldn't end as a random process, it wouldn't require quantum tunneling to get started.
 06:49: I mentioned that quantum fields fluctuate due to the intrinsic randomness of the quantum world.


20190806: What Caused the Big Bang?
 08:29: ... if the inflaton field stays stuck. But quantum fields have a tendency to randomly fluctuate to different values, thanks to the Heisenberg uncertainty ...


20190718: Did Time Start at the Big Bang?
 11:12: ... infinite time or The same amount of time could lead to all particles randomly converging back to the same spot Or maybe black holes birth new ...


20190617: How Black Holes Kill Galaxies
 00:08: ... between the Black Hole mass and the speed that stars are moving in their random orbits within galactic bulge the so called, Stellar Velocity ...


20190509: Why Quantum Computing Requires Quantum Cryptography
 05:48: ... for example, pass a randomlypolarized photon through a horizontal polarization filter like a polarized ...
 07:43: ... generates a random string of bits, 0’s and 1’s and encodes these bits using photons ...
 07:58: These bits are then sent over an open channel to Niels who then randomly picks a basis of his own for each photon and projects onto that.
 08:07: ... i.e. Albert sent a 1 and Bob also gets a1, otherwise he will get a random result – Albert sends a 1 but Niels will get a 1 or 0 with equal ...
 08:22: Over that same public channel they randomly pick a subset of those bits and Albert reveals which basis was used for those photons, and what she sent.
 08:33: If Niels used a different basis he ignores the result because he knows it will be random.
 09:06: That’s because Werner, like Niels, can only pick a random basis each time on which to project the photons.
 09:14: ... photon state is unchanged, otherwise it will project the photon onto a random state, meaning Niels isn’t guaranteed to get the same answer as Albert, ...
 12:18: Niels chooses a random set of bases to measure the particles he receives.
 17:05: Randomly hearing that while walking down the street would creep me out too much.


20190424: No Dark Matter = Proof of Dark Matter?
 00:03: ... okay to the face mollify shares with us they're tuning in to that video randomly was like Oh bleep I just walked into the final exam without ever going ...


20190320: Is Dark Energy Getting Stronger?
 09:34: Now there is a bit of variation in the relationship between UV and Xray brightness – there’s random scatter.
 13:36: ... few very distant quasars with good Xray measurements, so maybe the random variations in the UVtoXray ratio by chance to gave a false ...


20190313: Will You Travel to Space?
 14:05: Now to remind you, the Brownian ratchet has this flywheel that turns a cog due to random motions of particles hitting the flywheel.
 14:38: ... vibration. Even in a vacuum, that internal vibration is enough to randomize its rotational ...


20190306: The Impossibility of Perpetual Motion Machines
 04:00: Individual gas particles are moving around with random – or Brownian motion.
 06:55: Due to the intrinsic quantum randomness of all particles, as expressed by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, everything moves.


20190220: Secrets of the Cosmic Microwave Background
 00:08: ... early Universe became transparent for the first time It sounds like random static But that buzz contains an incredible wealth of hidden information ...
 12:34: ... background It's an insane wealth of information f rom what looks like random minuscule fluctuations in this faint noisy buzz So next time you hear ...


20190207: Sound Waves from the Beginning of Time
 03:51: ... teensy bit less there, These fluctuations probably were the remnants of random quantum fluctuations From when the universe was subatomic in ...
 08:35: Collapse that web into galaxies over the age of the universe, and at first glance, it looks like a random smattering of galaxies on the sky.
 09:18: With a galaxy redshift survey in hand, how do you find patterns in what looks like a random splattering of tens to hundreds of thousands of galaxies?


20190130: Perpetual Motion From Negative Mass?
 14:07: 6 randomly selected correctslashcreative answers will receive their choice of any piece space time swag from our brand new merchandise store.


20190124: The Crisis in Cosmology
 10:13: ...that that level of difference could have happened through random errors.


20181212: Quantum Physics in a Mirror Universe
 00:02: ... a directed panspermia program gives you much better numbers than randomly scattering with the philic bacteria from asteroid impacts with a non ...


20181206: Did Life on Earth Come from Space?
 00:37: ... months although it's more likely to take years or centuries given the random nature of the journey those timescales are totally reasonable for the ...


20181121: 'Oumuamua Is Not Aliens
 08:26: And finally, what about the sheer unlikelihood of a random encounter with an interstellar space rock?
 10:24: And that's a pretty typical speed for a random object orbiting in the Milky Way.


20181031: Are Virtual Particles A New Layer of Reality?
 10:27: ... particles." The quantum state is not fluctuating on its own, but it will randomly collapse into one of these possibilities when something interacts with ...


20181010: Computing a Universe Simulation
 10:58: We chose six correct enough responses at random listed below.


20180912: How Much Information is in the Universe?
 14:43: The actual amount of time it takes to decay is random, and there's a constant probability of it happening at every set interval.


20180905: The Black Hole Entropy Enigma
 03:55: The higher the entropy, the more randomly distributed its particles and the more possible configurations lead to the same macroscopic state.
 04:12: ... which means energy tends to spread out evenly and particles tend to randomize, reducing our information about their microscopic ...
 04:36: Now that's a high entropy based, super hot and full of randomly moving particles.
 09:04: He showed that black holes radiate random particles exactly as though they have a peak glow for a particular temperature that depends on their mass.


20180823: How Will the Universe End?
 04:49: As stars randomly pass close to each other, planets are flung into the blackness.
 07:44: They slowly leak away their mass as a cool heat [INAUDIBLE] of random particles for the most part faint radio light.
 16:20: ... says that sometimes it feels like we're trying to fit maths randomly to the observations when we come up with stuff like virtual particles ...
 17:01: The key is that our accepted models of reality are consistent in ways that random chance couldn't possibly allow.


20180801: How Close To The Sun Can Humanity Get?
 09:23: 25 random participants will receive an awesome PBS DS tshirt.


20180725: Reversing Entropy with Maxwell's Demon
 00:15: Entropy is sometimes described as a measure of disorder or randomness.
 00:50: But entropy is connected to disorder and randomness in a very real way.
 02:04: Let's say we place 180 black stones on random vertices of our Go board.
 07:34: From our point of view, the randomness of the particles decreases, but that randomness is transferred to the memory of the demon.
 09:53: It can be interpreted as the amount of previously hidden information that can potentially be revealed by the observation of a random event.


20180718: The Misunderstood Nature of Entropy
 05:18: So if you look at the system at some random point in time, it'll be in a completely random microstate chosen from all possible microstates.
 05:38: Let's say you place 180 black stones at random.


20180711: Quantum Invariance & The Origin of The Standard Model
 03:18: The position that we observe when we look at the particle is picked randomly from that distribution.


20180620: The Black Hole Information Paradox
 02:44: ... causes black holes to evaporate into a perfectly random buzz of radiation that contains none of the information about the ...


20180613: What Survives Inside A Black Hole?
 12:54: Peter K. asks how the universe can be deterministic given the fundamental probabilistic random nature of the quantum world.
 13:02: Well, the key here is that that randomness arises at the level of observation.


20180523: Why Quantum Information is Never Destroyed
 07:58: But all of this talk of quantum mechanics being deterministic seems a bit at odds with the idea of quantum randomness and the uncertainty principle.
 08:12: That value seems to be chosen randomly based on the probability distribution encoded in the wave function.


20180411: The Physics of Life (ft. It's Okay to be Smart & PBS Eons!)
 01:07: The particles that make up any system all have some degree of random motion.
 01:13: That random motion tends to drive the system towards the most common arrangement of particles.
 01:18: Such a random disordered, unspecial arrangement is a high entropy state.
 06:20: These systems are doing their best to obey the second law of thermodynamics by redistributing their energy as evenly and randomly as they can.
 08:01: The most random possible form for energy is thermal radiation, and the lower the energy of its component photons, the higher the entropy.
 08:58: Selfreplication randomizes the environment, even if each new replicator is highly ordered.
 10:10: ... the process of redistributing energy into the most random possible state, little eddies of order, like galaxies, stars, planets, ...


20171213: The Origin of 'Oumuamua, Our First Interstellar Visitor
 06:16: It may come from a vast population of random debris floating around in interstellar space.


20171129: Citizen Science + ZeroPoint Challenge Answer
 09:17: So we randomly selected six correct answers as winners of the challenge.


20170830: White Holes
 10:09: We actually did talk about a case where a random drop in entropy lead to something very much like a white hole in this episode.


20170810: The OneElectron Universe
 10:16: We randomly selected five correct answers.


20170802: Dark Flow
 00:51: The random motion of galaxies what we call peculiar motion should also have no preferred direction.


20170726: The Secrets of Feynman Diagrams
 11:34: We'll randomly choose five correct answers to win a "Spacetime" tshirt, and that includes a choice from brand new tshirt designs.


20170621: AntiMatter and Quantum Relativity
 13:01: There are smaller cooler regions that are consistent with random fluctuations.


20170607: Supervoids vs Colliding Universes!
 02:22: We think that they came from random quantum fluctuations from the very first instant after the Big Bang.
 03:06: Now, it's possible to explain the cold spot as just an unusually strong random fluctuation in the CMB.


20170517: Martian Evolution
 02:40: ... a genetic trait is no longer useful, then random mutations will gradually destroy it, like sight and pigmentation for ...


20170503: Are We Living in an Ancestor Simulation? ft. Neil deGrasse Tyson
 08:01: ... an infinite multiverse, it should be vastly more common for particles to randomly assemble into a brain that is having exactly your current experience of ...
 13:52: ... that the Boltzmann brain thought experiment fails because it assumes random particle motion, and that particle motion is actually ...
 14:09: ... even in a perfectly deterministic universe, there's a pseudo randomness that arises due to massive complexity, say, in a room full of 10 to the ...
 14:20: ... there's a pretty powerful emergent force, then even the pseudo random assembly of a Boltzmann brain is vastly more probable than the pseudo ...
 16:13: It's also possible to imagine this happening randomly, albeit with stunningly low probability.


20170426: Are You a Boltzmann Brain?
 00:10: You just came into being randomly out of the chaotic void.
 00:44: He showed that the laws of thermodynamics can be explained by thinking of gas as a collection of microscopic particles in constant, random motion.
 02:32: The air molecules are moving randomly, and over time they pass through all possible arrangements that they could have.
 02:39: In most of those random arrangements, the room is filled pretty evenly, and we can't tell those arrangements apart from each other.
 02:54: ... of those possible distributions, all of the air molecules end up randomly bunched together in one corner or, I don't know, produce a density wave ...
 03:18: Entropy increases because particle positions and velocities get randomized over time.
 03:45: The larger the random dip in entropy, the less probable it is.
 03:52: ... of gas will happen to all end up in one corner of the room, due to their random ...
 04:42: However, there's one arrangement that those particles could randomly fall into that would be even less probable than all of the above.
 04:50: All the particles in a region much larger than our universe could randomly end up in almost the exact same location.
 08:10: ... experiment I do may be the randomly assembled delusion of a Boltzmann brain that happened to come into ...
 09:37: And, in this case, there is no evidence that the Big Bang arose from a random fluctuation.


20170322: Superluminal Time Travel + Time Warp Challenge Answer
 10:43: If you see your name below, we randomly selected your correct answer to win a spacetime tshirt.
 11:20: It should only take about 10 minutes, and we'll be giving away PBS shirts to 25 randomly selected participants.


20170315: Time Crystals!
 02:16: Normal matter that is in what we call thermal equilibrium only has random internal motion.
 02:26: But from one instant to the next, that buzz stays random.
 04:19: Either direct alignment or opposite alignment are both a lower energy state than random alignment.
 05:09: ... or continue oscillating at least for a while if the input EM field is randomized. ...
 08:51: ... doesn't take much random motion from heat to scramble a carefully prepared array of entangled ...


20170104: How to See Black Holes + Kugelblitz Challenge Answer
 10:02: If you see your name below, we randomly selected you from the correct submissions.


20161208: What Happens at the Event Horizon?
 15:57: In the Copenhagen interpretation, the uncertainty principle describes the intrinsic randomness of the quantum world.


20161130: Pilot Wave Theory and Quantum Realism
 02:36: ... were a measurement to be made, and that upon measurement fundamental randomness determines the properties of, say, the particle that would emerge from ...
 03:07: Einstein famously hated the idea of fundamental randomness.
 04:51: ... the choice of path isn't random if you know the exact particle position and velocity at any point, you ...
 05:01: Apparent randomness arises because we can't ever have a perfect measurement of initial position, velocity, or other properties.


20161026: The Many Worlds of the Quantum Multiverse
 04:45: The Copenhagen interpretation says that this selection happens in a fundamentally random way.
 10:23: It explains the apparent randomness of quantum mechanics with a sort of observer bias.


20160914: SelfReplicating Robots and Galactic Domination
 07:36: ... random events that led to technological life dominating the Earth could have ...


20160907: Is There a Fifth Fundamental Force? + Quantum Eraser Answer
 04:41: That decision is made randomly by a beam splitter in the original experiment.


20160817: Quantum Eraser Lottery Challenge
 03:11: ... section so C and D. That choice is made by these beam splitters, which randomly reflect 50% of photons and let 50% pass ...
 03:57: This conscious choice should be no different to the random decision of the beam splitter.


20160803: Can We Survive the Destruction of the Earth? ft. Neal Stephenson
 10:57: AFastudiousCuber asks, how can something be "fundamentally" random?
 11:15: ... function collapses, the properties of the resulting particle are picked randomly from that probability ...


20160727: The Quantum Experiment that Broke Reality
 09:25: ... that final choice of the experiment of the universe is fundamentally random within the constraints of the final wave ...


20160720: The Future of Gravitational Waves
 01:54: It's calculated that LIGO would need to observe for over 200,000 years to see the same signal arise from random vibrations.
 02:01: Or another way to put this is that there's a one in 20 billion chance that this signal was from random vibrations.
 02:27: There's only a one in 10 billion chance of this one just being due to random noise.
 07:40: We chose three random correct answers from both the main and extra credit questions names listed right here.


20160622: Planck's Constant and The Origin of Quantum Mechanics
 03:10: Heat is just the energy in the random motion of particles comprising an object.


20160615: The Strange Universe of Gravitational Lensing
 11:45: ... to become a set of physical properties, there needs to be a completely random sampling of its probability ...


20160608: New Fundamental Particle Discovered?? + Challenge Winners!
 02:28: And it could have been the natural result of random fluctuations.
 12:40: If your name appears on screen below me, you got this right, and were randomly selected to receive a space time Tshirt.


20160511: The Cosmic Conspiracy of Dark Energy Challenge Question
 06:07: I'll choose three correct answers at random for both the main and the extra credit questions to receive Space Time tshirts.


20160330: Pulsar Starquakes Make Fast Radio Bursts? + Challenge Winners!
 00:38: And it could happen pretty randomly over this sky.


20160323: How Cosmic Inflation Flattened the Universe
 10:59: And random orientation orbits give you a spheroid.
 11:08: Stars a small enough, compared to the distances between them, that they can be in these random orbits.


20160316: Why is the Earth Round and the Milky Way Flat?
 10:52: You'll find the link to the survey in the description, and 25 participants will be chosen at random to win PBS Digital Studios tshirts.


20160309: Cosmic Microwave Background Challenge
 03:53: We'll randomly select three correct answers for each of the two questions.


20160217: Planet X Discovered?? + Challenge Winners!
 02:20: Now, the alignment of those weird Kuiper Belt orbits is pretty unlikely to have happened randomly, a 0.007% chance, to be precise.
 07:30: We chose three random entries from those to get brand new "SpaceTime" tshirts.


20160120: The Photon Clock Challenge
 01:44: ... choose five random entries from the correct submissions to receive brandnew PBS Space Time ...


20151125: 100 Years of Relativity + Challenge Winners!
 07:33: We chose five those correct answers at random to receive PBS Digital Studios tshirts.


20151111: Challenge: Can you save Earth from a Killer Asteroid?
 02:41: We'll select five random correct answers to receive PBS Digital Studios tshirts, and I'll have the solution for you in a couple of weeks.


20151105: Why Haven't We Found Alien Life?
 08:26: Was this a random lucky event that we just had to wait for?
 09:00: Of course, maybe the emergence of intelligence is a random and unlikely event, and this one is the hardest to assess.


20150827: Watch THIS! (New Host + Challenge Winners)
 02:02: But a lot of you did submit algebraically correct complete solutions, from which we selected five randomly to win a Tshirt.


20150812: Challenge: Which Particle Wins This Race?
 03:48: Now from among the correct answers, we will randomly select five people to receive a PBS Digital Studios Tshirt.
 05:04: Five random people with correct answers and explanations will receive a Tshirt.


20150617: How to Signal Aliens
 10:45: ... people who got it right with the correct answer and were among our five randomly selected ...


20150610: What Happens to a Helium Balloon in Freefall?
 01:21: We'll be giving away tshirts to some randomly chosen people from among those who submit correct answers with correct explanations.


20150520: The Real Meaning of E=mc²
 01:53: That's thermal energy, or equivalently, randomized kinetic energy on a more microscopic level.


20150429: What's the Most Realistic Artificial Gravity in SciFi?
 10:30: Does quantum mechanics bring back free will since it attaches some inherent randomness to the future.


20150325: Cosmic Microwave Background Explained
 02:12: In fact, it's called a thermal spectrum because the light is generated by the random motions of particles in the material.
 02:17: And those random motions are themselves a reflection of temperature.
