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2022-12-08: How Are Quasiparticles Different From Particles?

  • 08:40: ... be combined into composite particles, for example an atom is composed of quarks forming a nucleus and electrons bound to that nucleus by the exchange of ...
  • 14:20: After all, the elementary particles like electrons, photons, and quarks are just excitations in the elementary quantum fields.

2022-11-23: How To See Black Holes By Catching Neutrinos

  • 17:23: The idea is that there may be a new way for quarks to form stable clumps.
  • 17:27: Normally quarks bid together in groups of 3 - protons or neutrons.
  • 17:31: ... masses much higher than the current periodic it may be possible for quarks to exist in a free-flowing state without the standard ...
  • 17:41: Originally it was thought that strange quarks were required, and we’ve been searching for strange quark matter since the ’80’s.
  • 17:49: ... work shows that this may also be possible with the regular up and down quarks of normal matter, and that this up-down-quark matter may lead to ...

2022-11-16: Are there Undiscovered Elements Beyond The Periodic Table?

  • 07:08: It involves sending virtual quark packets - mesons - between the nucleons.

2022-10-26: Why Did Quantum Entanglement Win the Nobel Prize in Physics?

  • 15:24: He was such a deep lover of the  mysteries of physics and space he named his hamster Sputnik and his fish was named Quark.

2022-10-19: The Equation That Explains (Nearly) Everything!

  • 06:02: ... they are stuff, literally, they are what stuff is made up. Electrons, quarks, neutrinos, they are all just different kinds of fermions. Meanwhile ...

2022-09-21: Science of the James Webb Telescope Explained!

  • 12:45: Our explanation focused on how the strong force causes quarks stick together to form hadrons like protons and neutrons.
  • 13:09: Instead, nucleons continuously spit out virtual pi and rho mesons - quark, anti-quark pairs - which are then absorbed by neighboring nucleons.
  • 13:56: The core mechanics of string theory were developed to describe the very stringy one-dimensional gluon bonds between quarks, particularly in mesons.
  • 15:01: ... finding that the proton seems to contain the influence of the charm quark, not just the up and down quarks as previously ...

2022-09-14: Could the Higgs Boson Lead Us to Dark Matter?

  • 00:54: We see and we feel the atoms - the electrons and the quarks - via the protons and neutrons.
  • 01:18: ... notice because they extremely rarely interact with the electrons and quarks that make up the atoms that make up ...
  • 02:44: The standard model particle could be a quark, an electron, or anything that makes up normal matter.
  • 06:01: ... charged leptons: electrons, muons and tau particles; it excludes the quarks and whatever is made of quarks; it excludes the W boson of the weak ...
  • 11:08: ... the vector boson fusion channel of Higgs production, in which a pair of quarks in the colliding protons shoot a W or Z boson at each ...

2022-08-24: What Makes The Strong Force Strong?

  • 01:20: The answers to these questions lie in the complex behavior of quarks and gluons via the rules of quantum chromodynamics.
  • 02:22: ... - they were made of smaller particles still - and those particles are quarks. ...
  • 02:31: It turns out that location on these shapes represent the quark content of the particle.
  • 02:38: Strangeness just turned out to represent how many strange quarks are present.
  • 02:41: By the way, these particles of multiple quarks are now called hadrons.
  • 02:47: Describing hadrons as groups of quarks explains the eightfold way, but it also introduces a whole new problem.
  • 03:24: That includes electrons, quarks, and many of the particles that are composed of quarks.
  • 03:53: OK, so how does this apply to quarks?
  • 03:58: ... is made of three strange quarks - in reality, 3 valence strange quarks - three quarks in the top energy ...
  • 04:39: If our Omega particle’s quarks are going to wear the same dress, they better be different colours.
  • 04:58: ... course the quarks aren’t literally colored, but as we’ll see in a bit, there is a very ...
  • 05:12: We need this attraction to hold quarks together in nucleons, and nucleons together in the atomic nucleus.
  • 05:34: It turns out that all of these particles are made of three or two quarks.
  • 05:45: And most importantly we never see lone quarks except in very particular circumstances.
  • 06:42: A pair of quarks bound into, say, a pion, are connected by a gluon field, also describable as a constant exchange of virtual gluons.
  • 06:57: For one thing, it does not weaken as the quarks are moved further apart.
  • 07:02: Instead of forming a fading gradient of field strength, quark pairs are connected by a thread of gluon field called a flux tube.
  • 07:12: As quarks are separated, the thread doesn’t weaken like the EM field does.
  • 07:25: At a certain point the tube will snap - but only when exactly enough energy has been built up to create a new pair of quarks.
  • 07:34: ... each of the original quarks is partnered with one of the new quarks, forming two new pions from a ...
  • 07:46: If you want to break them apart you just end up forming new particles, so quarks never end up alone except in the most extreme energies.
  • 07:55: ... in a large particle collider, space gets sort of saturated so that new quarks can’t be ...
  • 08:05: This allows quarks to move freely in a state of matter known as Quark Gluon Plasma.
  • 08:11: ... behavior of the gluon field explains why we only see quarks in groups, but we need one more puzzle piece to explain why the strong ...
  • 08:32: ... are two parts to this: the first one is that quarks always get together in groups that are color neutral, and the second is ...
  • 09:20: This makes sense when we have two quarks, they have opposite color charges so they cancel out.
  • 09:26: For example, the quarks of a pion could be red and anti-red.
  • 09:30: But what happens when we have three quarks?
  • 12:07: This means gluons are unable to interact with neutral particles like the combinations of quarks that form the hadrons.
  • 12:43: Such a gluon might turn a blue quark green or a green quark blue.
  • 13:40: The position of each object in the hexagon tells you how much they have of a certain kind of quark, a certain color charge, or actual color.
  • 16:18: It’s the unbreakable boned that keeps our quarks together.
  • 16:22: I’m not sure what the quarks actually represent in this metaphor, and really it’s probably good not to think too hard about it.

2022-08-03: What Happens Inside a Proton?

  • 01:15: ... Every proton and neutron is composed   of 3 quarks stuck together by gluons.  Well, actually, that’s a ...
  • 01:31: ... nucleon is a roiling, shifting swarm  of virtual quarks and gluons that just   LOOKS like three quarks from the ...
  • 02:06: ... colour charges,   hence the chromo in chromodynamics. Also quarks never appear on their own - they’re always   bound to other quarks ...
  • 05:31: ... back to the strong force. Now we have two quarks hurtling towards each other.   They’re going to interact by ...
  • 06:02: ... interaction probability for your pair of   quarks. Adding new vertices doesn’t decrease the probability anywhere near ...
  • 06:37: ... cases where the strong couple constant   can become small and quarks can be understood with Feynman diagrams, this is the ...
  • 07:07: ... quantum chromodynamics predicts for the behavior of   quarks, how can we even test the theory?  Well, we need to abandon Feynman ...
  • 07:53: ... coupling  between quark and gluon fields   is so intense that the disturbances of ...
  • 12:15: ... our couple quark-gluon field looks like this: a lattice of points with ...
  • 13:36: ... masses and decay frequencies of hadrons to the exotic properties of quark-gluon plasma.   These simulations were also an essential part ...

2022-07-27: How Many States Of Matter Are There?

  • 00:05: We have solids, liquids and gasses, and plasmas, quark-gluon plasmas, nuclear matter, bose-einstein condensates, neutronium, time crystals, and sand.
  • 01:21: But wait, the quarks inside protons and neutrons are “matter”.
  • 05:16: Even in a hydrogen plasma, the lone protons are bundles of quarks.
  • 05:36: This is the Hagedorn temperature, and when we reach it quarks are stripped from nucleons to produce a quark-gluon plasma.
  • 05:53: But actually, the interactions between the gluons and quarks remain significant and so a quark-gluon plasma behaves more like a liquid.
  • 06:10: However in the very early universe everything was a quark-gluon plasma, and that may also be true in the cores of massive neutron stars.
  • 06:18: So if a quark-gluon plasma is liquid-like, does that mean it can freeze?
  • 06:30: More general, a hadron, so protons and neutrons but also various exotic combinations of quarks.
  • 06:37: A hadron is fairly literally a crystal of quark-gluon plasma - it’s the stuff in its “solid” form.
  • 06:45: That’s right, you are made of quark snow.
  • 06:48: ... fact the whole process of creating quark-gluon plasma is like smashing snowballs in the middle of the arctic, hoping to ...
  • 07:00: The stuff of quarks is generically called quark matter or QCD matter - for quantum chromodynamics - the physics of quark and gluon interactions.
  • 07:09: To fully convince you that quark matter has its own states of matter, behold its phase diagram.
  • 07:16: Here it's temperature versus baryonic potential instead of pressure, which is basically how much energy quarks can absorb or emit.
  • 07:24: Our quark-gluon plasma is actually the analogy of gas in atomic matter, even if it’s behavior is more liquid.
  • 07:41: ... the individual quark “crystals” merge together into a fluid of neutrons that we call ...
  • 11:05: So, galaxies are fluids of stars which themselves are made of plasmas of hydrogen made of frozen nuggets of quark matter.

2022-07-20: What If We Live in a Superdeterministic Universe?

  • 16:08: For example, do different color quarks decay the same way?

2022-06-30: Could We Decode Alien Physics?

  • 00:00: ... particles, each with 3 generations - these   must be the quarks and the leptons, which  are distinguishable from each other ...

2022-03-23: Where Is The Center of The Universe?

  • 16:48: That means there was not much of a difference between Up and Down quarks or between electrons and their neutrinos.
  • 17:02: In fact the universe seemed to be made of only six particles, three quarks and three leptons.

2022-03-16: What If Charge is NOT Fundamental?

  • 07:34: ... particles, but rather made up of smaller components, which he dubbed quarks. ...
  • 07:53: He showed that isospin and hypercharge were just emergent properties that reflected the different types of quarks that make up one of these particles.
  • 08:03: Starting with experiments at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in 1968, the reality of quarks quickly became conclusive.
  • 08:21: ... must be something deeper - something that lives in the hearts of these quarks and other elementary particles - that governs these differences between ...
  • 08:32: The quark model for nucleons led to a description  of the strong nuclear force via this SU(3) stuff to give us quantum chromodynamics.
  • 11:30: Particles like the electron, the neutrino, and even the quark.
  • 11:35: That's right, quarks feel the weak force and obey the same rule for their electric charge.
  • 11:40: ... the composite particles of the particle zoo emerge from their different quark content, but are driven by these more "real" weak-force ...

2021-10-05: Why Magnetic Monopoles SHOULD Exist

  • 08:31: Or maybe of quarks - a third the electron charge.

2021-09-21: How Electron Spin Makes Matter Possible

  • 01:13: ... include all the particles that we think of as matter - from electrons to quarks to the neutrinos. The other spin behavior is to have integer spin - ...

2021-09-15: Neutron Stars: The Most Extreme Objects in the Universe

  • 12:23: ... we find ‘hyperon’ particles containing   ‘strange quarks’. Or, they might not be bound into particles at all - the protons and ...

2021-08-18: How Vacuum Decay Would Destroy The Universe

  • 09:38: ... most important are the Higgs particle  itself as well as the top quark, which is   the most massive elementary particle. And ...

2021-02-24: Does Time Cause Gravity?

  • 07:05: Like - what about a particle with no size - supposedly point-like particles like electrons, quarks, etc.

2020-12-08: Why Do You Remember The Past But Not The Future?

  • 05:01: ... scenario, could in principle trace the jiggling of its internal quarks backwards to learn when the proton ...

2020-09-28: Solving Quantum Cryptography

  • 15:49: Electrons and quarks are electric monopoles.

2020-08-24: Can Future Colliders Break the Standard Model?

  • 04:09: ... generated collisions energetic enough to produce the very massive top quark, and so enabled the discovery of the final Fermion - or matter particle - ...
  • 09:50: ... energies, we don’t know how often it interacts with the superheavy top quark, a process that might contain hints about new ...
  • 11:26: It will smack electrons into protons and other nucleons to probe the details structure and interactions between quarks.

2020-08-10: Theory of Everything Controversies: Livestream

  • 00:00: ... have a bigger problem than that which is that the electron and the quarks and the neutrinos and all these particles that are mapped that are ...

2020-07-28: What is a Theory of Everything: Livestream

  • 00:00: ... relativity and you take the realm of the smallest possible stuff the quarks and gluons and electrons and things that make up you and everything ...

2020-07-20: The Boundary Between Black Holes & Neutron Stars

  • 07:31: That’s especially true towards the center of the neutron star, where the neutrons themselves probably break down into different types of quark matter.
  • 07:39: Up and down quarks that comprised the neutrons may even transform into strange quarks - something we’ve talked about before.

2020-06-15: What Happens After the Universe Ends?

  • 08:39: And that’s precisely true for things like quarks and electrons, which gain their masses from interactions with the Higgs field.

2020-02-11: Are Axions Dark Matter?

  • 02:11: ... nuclear force also. The strong force is the fundamental force that binds quarks together into protons and neutrons, and is mediated by the gluon ...
  • 06:32: ... another solution to the strong CP problem its's that if any of the quarks are massless, CP symmetry is automatically conserved. However, as far as ...
  • 08:05: ... would do this by generating pairs of virtual quarks which then decay into photons - the so-called Primakoff effect. This ...

2020-01-27: Hacking the Nature of Reality

  • 06:11: For example, many different mesons were discovered, which we now know to be composed of two elementary quarks.
  • 06:19: But at the time, prior to the discovery of quarks, no point-like, elementary nuclear particles were known.
  • 08:35: Before quarks and their interactions were properly understood, doing that sum seemed impossible in the case of strong force interactions.
  • 09:45: ... in our understanding of the behavior of quarks and gluons revealed that the strong nuclear force does not actually ...

2019-12-17: Do Black Holes Create New Universes?

  • 09:25: Now it may be that in the cores of the most massive neutron stars, some particles can convert into strange quarks.
  • 09:41: And the lower the mass of the strange quark, the easier it is to convert lighter particles into strange quarks.
  • 09:54: ... universes evolve to maximize the number of black holes, then the strange quark mass should be optimized to make the cutoff between neutron stars and ...

2019-11-11: Does Life Need a Multiverse to Exist?

  • 04:02: In our universe, quarks tend to stick together to form protons and neutrons, which stick together and attract electrons to form atoms.
  • 08:18: For example, if quarks or electrons had significantly different masses we’d once again be in a chemistry-free cosmos.

2019-08-06: What Caused the Big Bang?

  • 10:26: ... The inflatons decay into the familiar particles of the standard model - quarks, electrons, ...

2019-06-17: How Black Holes Kill Galaxies

  • 13:12: ... material is composed of strange matter which means up, down, and strange quarks. ...
  • 13:30: ... Release it from the embrace of the neutron star and all the strange quarks probably decay into boring old up and down quarks which would join ...

2019-04-10: The Holographic Universe Explained

  • 07:54: ... theory, around 1970, tried to model the strong force between pairs of quarks – mesons – as this strand of gluons that behaves like a vibrating ...

2019-03-28: Could the Universe End by Tearing Apart Every Atom?

  • 08:06: So, protons and neutrons will be separated into their component quarks...
  • 13:28: ... asked a great question: "What happens when the big rip tries to separate quark pairs?" For background, when you try to separate composite quark ...

2019-01-16: Our Antimatter, Mirrored, Time-Reversed Universe

  • 03:02: ... sure, Feynman - why not! electrons become positronsquarks become anti quarks and vice-versa sending protons and neutrons to their anti versions in ...

2018-12-12: Quantum Physics in a Mirror Universe

  • 00:02: ... axis that's not the same handedness as the quantum chirality of all the quarks comprising that nucleus but it's probably connected parity ...

2018-10-18: What are the Strings in String Theory?

  • 01:52: The idea started in the 60s with efforts to understand the behavior of hadrons, collections of quarks bound by the gluons of the strong nuclear force.
  • 02:09: ... relationship between their angular momenta and masses suggested that the quarks in mesons are connected by-- you guessed it-- ...

2018-09-12: How Much Information is in the Universe?

  • 06:07: Each proton has three quarks, and there are a similar number of electrons.

2018-07-04: Will A New Neutrino Change The Standard Model?

  • 02:36: ... latter include the quarks, up/down, which comprise protons and neutrons, and the more exotic top, ...
  • 03:02: These have far lower mass, and unlike quarks and leptons, they have no electric charge, hence neutrino or little neutral one.
  • 04:42: ... we saw in our episode on the Higgs mechanism, real quarks and electrons are actually a combination of left and right chiral ...
  • 06:15: If neutrinos gained their mass by the same mechanism as quarks and electrons, that means their chirality oscillates.

2018-06-13: What Survives Inside A Black Hole?

  • 10:06: An example would be the number of particles of different types, like the balance between quarks and antiquarks represented by baryon number.

2018-05-16: Noether's Theorem and The Symmetries of Reality

  • 08:14: For example, the color charge of quantum chromodynamics describes the strong interaction between quarks and gluons.

2017-10-19: The Nature of Nothing

  • 02:15: ... with different energies, and those oscillations are the electrons, quarks, neutrinos, photons, gluons, et cetera, that comprise the stuff of our ...
  • 13:32: ... particles that form atoms are all spin-half fermions, so electrons and quarks, while the force-carrying particles like photons, gluons, et cetera, are ...
  • 13:47: Protons and neutrons, which combine three quarks, all have spins of half.

2017-09-20: The Future of Space Telescopes

  • 13:05: ... after that the neutrons themselves will disintegrate into quarks-- and then who knows what-- as the core continues to collapse towards the ...

2017-08-16: Extraterrestrial Superstorms

  • 12:19: Not too much protons and neutrons, but the different quarks as well as muons, neutrinos, et cetera.

2017-06-28: The First Quantum Field Theory

  • 10:26: ... principle tells you that you can only have one fermion, or electron quark, et cetera, per quantum state, rather than infinite particles in the case ...
  • 11:28: ... are fields for every type of quark-antiquark pair, for every type of force-carrying particle-- so-called bosons, like ...

2016-11-30: Pilot Wave Theory and Quantum Realism

  • 12:29: ... on the EM Drive and future episode ideas, not so much the embarrassing quark compilation-- damn you, [INAUDIBLE] Anyway, if you're interested in ...
  • 12:59: Burak asks why quark/strange matter isn't found naturally in the universe given that it's supposed to be so stable.
  • 13:13: But this only applies when you have a large number of quarks mushed together.
  • 13:18: In that case, having one strange for every one up and one down quark is a very low energy state and so is very stable.
  • 13:27: However, this doesn't work when there are only a small number of quarks, say in the typical atomic nucleus.
  • 13:34: In that case, any mass of strange quarks will decay into the lighter up or down quarks.
  • 13:39: But during the quark era, the universe was full of this quark-gluon plasma.
  • 13:55: That said, some strange matter made have formed during the quark epoch.

2016-11-16: Strange Stars

  • 00:00: ... are even stranger stellar remnants out there, stars made entirely of quarks. ...
  • 03:56: This may cause neutrons to dissolve into their component quarks.
  • 04:00: This so-called quark matter is its very own type of bizarre.
  • 04:05: ... think that a type of gas-like quark matter, a so-called quark-gluon plasma, filled the entire universe until ...
  • 04:25: Minuscule flecks of quark-gluon plasma exist for tiny fractions of a second after very high-speed particle collisions.
  • 04:38: ... the quark matter in a neutron star is forged by insane pressures, not by the ...
  • 04:59: We sometimes call a neutron star with such a quark matter core a quark star.
  • 05:04: Now, neutrons are comprised of one up and two down quarks.
  • 05:10: Quark matter made of these quark types would need to be confined by incredible pressures to maintain stability outside the atomic nucleus.
  • 05:19: So that probably rules out having an entire star made of this stuff, unless the quark matter is also strange.
  • 05:27: It may be that when neutrons disintegrate under high pressure, half of the down quarks are converted to strange quarks.
  • 05:38: It's a special type of quark matter.
  • 05:40: It has three quark types instead of two, and that means more particles can occupy the lowest quantum energy states.
  • 05:49: It's as though the quarks trick their way around the Pauli exclusion principle by having some of them put on silly disguises.
  • 06:51: It could be that neutron stars have an electroweak core, an apple-sized ball with the mass of two Earths in which quarks themselves burn.
  • 08:23: A possible explanation is that a quark matter core formed at the heart of this neutron star and is slowly transforming into strange matter.
  • 08:32: As down quarks flip into the more massive strange quarks, they have to absorb energy from somewhere to provide for that extra mass.
  • 08:44: There are other candidates that could be quark and/or strange stars.
  • 08:48: Some appear a little bit too small for their mass, suggesting quark matter densities.
  • 08:59: And it's been hypothesized that these may be due to a second explosion as the neutron star collapses further into a quark star.
  • 09:08: Even the famous supernova that exploded in the Large Magellanic Cloud in 1987 has been hypothesized to have left behind a quark star.

2016-06-08: New Fundamental Particle Discovered?? + Challenge Winners!

  • 04:03: Just like the proton is a combination of three quarks, this could be a much more massive combination of several quarks and antiquarks.

2016-04-06: We Are Star Stuff

  • 02:51: ... vast majority of that hydrogen has a lonely proton nucleus, a trio of quarks that found each other about a millionth of a second after the Big Bang ...
  • 03:13: The secret of the success of this relationship is that it takes a lot more energy for those quarks to be apart than to be together.
  • 03:46: Two protons, two neutrons, 12 quarks, a complicated but very stable marriage of particles.

2016-01-27: The Origin of Matter and Time

  • 06:28: ... elementary components of the atom, in which the familiar electrons and quarks are composites of massless particles confined by the Higgs ...
  • 09:38: However, quarks and electrons gain their intrinsic mass by interacting with the Higgs field.
  • 10:04: ... basic vibrations of their quantum fields-- the time that the electron or quark feels-- is felt by the composite particle, not by their ...

2016-01-13: When Time Breaks Down

  • 01:11: ... their orbits, themselves held in place by protons that are comprised of quarks in constant ...
  • 01:47: But what about the quarks, the electrons?
  • 02:09: Those electrons and quarks bounce around at such high speeds inside the atom that they experience time very differently to the atom itself.
  • 06:22: Quarks and electrons confined first by their coupling with the Higgs field, and then by the forces binding them into atoms.

2016-01-06: The True Nature of Matter and Mass

  • 00:54: ... of the mass of atoms comes from the kinetic and binding energy of the quarks that make up protons and ...
  • 04:55: 99% of the mass of the proton is in the vibrational energy of the quarks plus the binding energy of the gluon field.
  • 05:03: The actual intrinsic mass of the quarks is a tiny contribution.
  • 05:08: ... a lot like a combination of our photon box and our compressed spring-- quarks, bouncing off the walls in the binding gluon field, which itself acts ...
  • 05:22: And as we saw recently, even those quarks, as well as electrons, gain their tiny masses from a type of confinement via the Higgs field.

2015-12-16: The Higgs Mechanism Explained

  • 00:28: The electrons, and the quarks that comprise protons and neutrons, do seem to have intrinsic mass, but this is only run 1% of the mass of the atom.
  • 00:36: Most of the atom's mass is the confined kinetic and binding energy of those quarks.

2015-12-09: How to Build a Black Hole

  • 09:25: Neutrons are certainly shredded into component quarks and gluons.

2015-05-20: The Real Meaning of E=mc²

  • 06:33: They're made of particles called quarks, whose combine mass is about 2,000 to 3,000 times smaller than a proton's or neutron's mass.
  • 06:41: Basically, quark potential energy.
  • 06:48: Every time he says "gluons" in that video, just substitute "quark potential energy," and you'll have a roughly correct picture of what's going on.
  • 06:54: All right, what about the masses of electrons and quarks?
  • 07:12: For instance, there's the potential energy associated with the interactions of electrons and quarks with the Higgs field.
  • 07:17: ... there's also potential energy that electrons and quarks have from interacting with the electric fields that they themselves ...

2015-03-18: Can A Starfox Barrel Roll Work In Space?

  • 07:58: Another possibility raise is that maybe there exists an exotic but more stable state of nuclear matter involving strange quarks.
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