Search PBS Space Time


2022-12-14: How Can Matter Be BOTH Liquid AND Gas?

  • 00:03: ... in extreme circumstances - like how at very high emperatures we get the plasma that the sun is made of, or at extreme densities we get the nuclear ...
  • 14:26: ... liquids gases plasmas, bose-einstein condensates and the resulting superconductors and ...

2022-11-23: How To See Black Holes By Catching Neutrinos

  • 08:40: ... galaxy has been driven to the center, forming a whirlpool of searing plasma - an accretion disk - as it falls into the black ...

2022-08-24: What Makes The Strong Force Strong?

  • 08:05: This allows quarks to move freely in a state of matter known as Quark Gluon Plasma.
  • 17:19: ... at that temperature forms a relativistic plasma, and we can produce such matter in our labs and we see it in cataclysmic ...
  • 17:31: We don’t see these plasmas actually freeze - just that their spectrum is changed a bit from the typical thermal spectrum of hot matter.

2022-08-03: What Happens Inside a Proton?

  • 13:36: ... frequencies of hadrons to the exotic properties of quark-gluon plasma.   These simulations were also an essential part of the prediction ...

2022-07-27: How Many States Of Matter Are There?

  • 00:05: We have solids, liquids and gasses, and plasmas, quark-gluon plasmas, nuclear matter, bose-einstein condensates, neutronium, time crystals, and sand.
  • 01:09: Electrons are knocked free from atoms, breaking all molecular bonds in the process and creating a Plasma.
  • 01:51: ... the states of matter you learned in school - solid, liquid, and gas, and plasma for those who stayed in school too long - a simple pattern is ...
  • 02:06: ... then evaporates into a gas a hundred Kelvin higher, and ionizes into a plasma at several thousand ...
  • 05:01: What happens if we increase the temperature of a plasma?
  • 05:05: ... plasma still consists of composite particles: the electrons are elementary, but ...
  • 05:16: Even in a hydrogen plasma, the lone protons are bundles of quarks.
  • 05:21: Just as we tore apart the atom when we made our plasma, if we crank temperature up high enough we can destroy nucleons.
  • 05:36: This is the Hagedorn temperature, and when we reach it quarks are stripped from nucleons to produce a quark-gluon plasma.
  • 05:47: You might wonder if this stuff is even more plasma-like that plasma - with the particles more free to zip around the room.
  • 05:53: But actually, the interactions between the gluons and quarks remain significant and so a quark-gluon plasma behaves more like a liquid.
  • 06:10: However in the very early universe everything was a quark-gluon plasma, and that may also be true in the cores of massive neutron stars.
  • 06:18: So if a quark-gluon plasma is liquid-like, does that mean it can freeze?
  • 06:37: A hadron is fairly literally a crystal of quark-gluon plasma - it’s the stuff in its “solid” form.
  • 06:48: ... fact the whole process of creating quark-gluon plasma is like smashing snowballs in the middle of the arctic, hoping to ...
  • 07:24: Our quark-gluon plasma is actually the analogy of gas in atomic matter, even if it’s behavior is more liquid.
  • 11:05: So, galaxies are fluids of stars which themselves are made of plasmas of hydrogen made of frozen nuggets of quark matter.

2022-06-30: Could We Decode Alien Physics?

  • 16:39: ... they hit your magnetic shield,   or for generating a hot plasma in that magnetic field to vaporize particles. There are lots ...

2022-02-23: Are Cosmic Strings Cracks in the Universe?

  • 00:58: ... vaporizes, more heat still and that water vapor   ionizes into plasma. But that’s not the final  phase transition. Keep heating until you ...

2022-01-19: How To Build The Universe in a Computer

  • 09:28: In your quasar disk   you need to simulate separately how  light travels through the hot plasma.

2021-12-20: What Happens If A Black Hole Hits Earth?

  • 07:05: ... black hole at the absolute top end of our mass range, the cloud of plasma is barely microns in size, but it still shines with the power of a ...
  • 11:02: ... stop- it goes straight through. The pressure from the superheated plasma around it creates a shockwave that pushes outward, creating a kind of ...
  • 12:01: ... the incredible heat of the plasma around the black hole should quickly sear the rock around it into exotic ...

2021-09-21: How Electron Spin Makes Matter Possible

  • 17:29: ... what would happen if you plucked one neutron out of the weird gridlocked plasma crystal lattice of the crust of a neutron star. And then my favorite ...

2021-09-15: Neutron Stars: The Most Extreme Objects in the Universe

  • 03:07: ... the neutron star’s atmosphere  is not made of atoms, rather it's a plasma,   in which atoms have been stripped of  their electrons, or ...
  • 03:27: ... neutron star’s atmosphere is barely a meter thick, with most of the plasma confined to   a thin shell 10cm above the star’s surface. ...
  • 04:04: ... dwarf - the dead core of a lower   mass star like our Sun. The plasma is crushed so tight that electrons are on the verge of   ...
  • 04:39: ... - stripped of its electrons. In fact it’s   a frozen plasma, in which its nuclei are locked together in a regular lattice. You ...
  • 12:23: ... And we've talked about quark stars before. While these plasmas have been seen in   collider experiments on Earth, we’re not ...

2021-09-07: First Detection of Light from Behind a Black Hole

  • 03:31: ... in the galactic core - then you get this gigantic whirlpool of searing plasma screaming around the black ...

2021-07-21: How Magnetism Shapes The Universe

  • 03:53: Here the field is generated by electrical currents flowing in the searing plasma near the Sun’s surface.
  • 08:30: These are the densest regions of those galactic disks - places where magnetic fields have confined the charged particles of the interstellar plasma.
  • 08:39: And that plasma in turn drags the magnetic fields in orbit around the galaxy.

2021-04-21: The NEW Warp Drive Possibilities

  • 10:19: Energy is distributed along these tracks, potentially as a plasma, in some places at some pretty insane temperatures.

2021-03-16: The NEW Crisis in Cosmology

  • 10:08: ... ancient sound waves   that reverberated through the hot, dense plasma of the early universe. Now those ripples are frozen   ...

2021-02-17: Gravitational Wave Background Discovered?

  • 00:00: ... star quakes which can glitch their rotational rates the magnetized plasma between the stars also slows radio waves from pulsars and the relative ...

2020-12-15: The Supernova At The End of Time

  • 05:19: He realized that, while Fowler’s calculations for the state of the degenerate plasma were brilliant, they were also incomplete.
  • 07:03: As they cool, the once-searing plasma changes state.
  • 07:20: The electrons remain as a hot, degenerate plasma and continue their work of keeping the star from collapsing.

2020-09-28: Solving Quantum Cryptography

  • 14:52: ... cosmic necklaces can be locked into the magnetic fields within the solar plasma so they don’t fall apart ...
  • 15:10: Timescales may be driven by the timescale of the motion of plasma in the stars and by the size of these critters.
  • 16:01: There was Frederik Pohl's "The world at the end of time" has a Plasma creature living in a star at war with copies of itself.

2020-09-21: Could Life Evolve Inside Stars?

  • 07:18: ... plasma and magnetic fields may stretch and break necklaces, which could ...

2020-04-28: Space Time Livestream: Ask Matt Anything

  • 00:00: ... strung of the sun's structure you can see the convection cells where plasma is bubbling up from below the interior of the Sun you see the sunspots ...

2019-09-03: Is Earth's Magnetic Field Reversing?

  • 07:27: ... such a field – the Earth, but also the Sun with its flowing hydrogen plasma, or the liquid metallic hydrogen in Jupiter and Saturn’s ...

2019-05-16: The Cosmic Dark Ages

  • 03:52: ... stars at a prodigious rate, and around these galaxies bubbles of ionized plasma grew as neutral hydrogen was burned away by the growing the ultraviolet ...
  • 07:19: ... stage of this feeding frenzy, surrounded by vortices of superheated plasma, these black holes powered the first quasars. They shone with the ...

2019-05-01: The Real Science of the EHT Black Hole

  • 08:38: ... this case, light from the magnetized plasma vortex is beamed on the side of the black hole where it’s moving towards ...
  • 09:56: So the plasma vortex should be rotating in the same direction as the black hole.

2019-03-06: The Impossibility of Perpetual Motion Machines

  • 09:37: ... rely more on pseudo-physics-speak - zero-point, mag-grav, plasma, torus vibrations sound fancy, but are typically less good at generating ...

2019-02-20: Secrets of the Cosmic Microwave Background

  • 02:05: ... by gravity Regular matter, what we call baryons was in plasma form with the simple atomic nuclei stripped of their electrons in that ...

2019-02-07: Sound Waves from the Beginning of Time

  • 01:37: For the first few hundred thousand years in the life of our universe, All of the space was filled with hydrogen and helium in plasma form.
  • 02:26: We say that in this state, light was coupled with matter, And baryons and photons formed a single strange fluid: A Baryon-Photon plasma.
  • 02:44: First: The Baryon-Photon plasma was opaque.
  • 02:54: Second: Light was able to exert an enormous pressure on this plasma, as we'll see that it'd lead to the production of colossal sound waves.
  • 03:08: ... interaction between the charged particles of the plasma via the trapped photons meant that ripples in the plasma travelled at ...
  • 05:01: At 380,000 years, the plasma hit a critical temperature of 3000 Kelvin, around the surface temperature of the coolest red dwarf stars.
  • 05:18: The baryons transitioned in phase from a plasma to a gas.
  • 05:49: As the wave of plasma and photons decoupled, light began to stream freely through the universe as the cosmic background radiation.
  • 05:57: But the plasma, now hydrogen and helium gas, stalled.
  • 06:07: The wave of plasma-turned-gas essentially froze in its current state.
  • 07:22: Well, crazily, we can still see those rings, not made of plasma or gas, but made of galaxies.
  • 08:27: Those rings were further smeared out over the thousands of years it took for the universe to fully transition from plasma to gas.
  • 11:30: Our understanding of the behaviour of the original baryon photon plasma is excellent.

2018-08-15: Quantum Theory's Most Incredible Prediction

  • 15:05: ... into different forms, they can dump huge amounts of energy into the plasma of the ...

2018-08-01: How Close To The Sun Can Humanity Get?

  • 04:00: It will also measure the outward flow of the magnetic field through the pointing flux, as well as the plasma density and electron temperature.
  • 05:22: ... will provide direct images of the plasma that other instruments are sampling from which 3D models of the corona ...

2018-05-02: The Star at the End of Time

  • 03:40: Rivers of plasma flow from the core to the surface, carrying both energy and the helium produced in the fusion reactions.

2018-03-07: Should Space be Privatized?

  • 11:10: Plasma currents swirl throughout the interior.

2018-02-21: The Death of the Sun

  • 06:47: There it will revolve through the tenuous searing plasma as the crust melts and the entire mantle begins to vaporize.

2018-01-10: What Do Stars Sound Like?

  • 00:32: This is impressive given the fact that they are impossibly distant opaque balls of fiery plasma.
  • 08:05: For example, we can map the currents of plasma and density fluctuations as they shift beneath the solar surface.

2017-10-25: The Missing Mass Mystery

  • 04:14: See, before the photons of the cosmic background radiation were released, they were trapped in the searing hot plasma of baryonic matter.
  • 05:59: Well, our best guess is that it's in the form of a very diffuse plasma, atoms stripped of their electrons in between the galaxies.
  • 06:11: If the plasma is hot enough, then it emits detectable X-rays.
  • 06:15: We typically see that stuff inside galaxy clusters where the plasma is relatively dense and is energized by the light of the galaxies themselves.
  • 06:25: On the other hand, if the material is cool enough, then nuclei can recapture their electrons and become a gas instead of a plasma.
  • 07:02: It must be hot enough to still be a plasma.
  • 07:23: That material would be cooler than the clusters themselves, but should at least be hot enough to form a plasma.
  • 08:32: As photons from the CMB pass through a giant filament, the hot plasma in the filament grants it a little energy boost.
  • 08:41: In fact, the electrons in that plasma scatter CMB photons to higher energies.
  • 09:54: These filaments seem to have enough of this hot diffuse plasma to match the amount expected from the models.

2017-10-11: Absolute Cold

  • 01:37: You get more heat causes electrons than any gas to escape the bonds of their atoms, resulting in the less known plasma state.

2017-10-04: When Quasars Collide STJC

  • 04:54: When a black hole feeds, the vortex of infalling plasma-- the accretion disk-- can produce a powerful magnetic field.

2017-08-02: Dark Flow

  • 02:51: After all, those galaxies formed from the hot hydrogen plasma that produced the CMB.
  • 03:39: ... of thousands of galaxies and are bathed in a diffuse but searing hot plasma-- hydrogen and helium, with temperatures up to 100 million ...
  • 03:55: As the photons of the CMB pass through that plasma, they steal a little bit of its energy.

2017-05-31: The Fate of the First Stars

  • 08:36: ... fog of hydrogen gas to the crystal clear and extremely diffuse hydrogen plasma that we see ...

2017-03-15: Time Crystals!

  • 05:48: Different materials become solid, liquid, gas, or plasma at different locations on that phase diagram.

2017-01-25: Why Quasars are so Awesome

  • 01:11: That's surrounded by a solar system-sized whirlpool of superheated plasma that shines brighter than an entire galaxy.

2017-01-11: The EM Drive: Fact or Fantasy?

  • 07:02: The paper invokes pilot wave theory as a way to justify treating the quantum vacuum as a sort of plasma with which it can exchange momentum.

2016-11-30: Pilot Wave Theory and Quantum Realism

  • 13:39: But during the quark era, the universe was full of this quark-gluon plasma.

2016-11-16: Strange Stars

  • 04:05: ... think that a type of gas-like quark matter, a so-called quark-gluon plasma, filled the entire universe until around a millionth of a second after ...
  • 04:25: Minuscule flecks of quark-gluon plasma exist for tiny fractions of a second after very high-speed particle collisions.
  • 04:50: In that state, it forms a superfluid rather than a plasma, a superfluid even denser than neutronium.

2016-06-15: The Strange Universe of Gravitational Lensing

  • 08:46: ... joins with severely lensed light from any surrounding whirlpool of hot plasma to form a bright ring around the black ...

2016-03-30: Pulsar Starquakes Make Fast Radio Bursts? + Challenge Winners!

  • 03:18: At this time, the universe was full of plasma, atomic nuclei, and free electrons.
  • 08:00: That hot plasma at the moment of recombination wasn't the thick searing fog that we sometimes imagine.

2016-03-09: Cosmic Microwave Background Challenge

  • 00:23: ... 380,000 years old, and had just cooled down enough for the hydrogen plasma that filled the universe to become hydrogen ...
  • 01:00: We're looking at an ocean of orangey, red-hot plasma that would later collapse into galaxies, and people, and stuff.
  • 01:41: In fact, all of those blobs of plasma were a mere 43 million light years away from the patch of space that would later contain the Milky Way.
  • 01:50: Back then, this patch of space just contained a slight over-density of plasma that looked pretty much the same as the rest of those blobs.
  • 02:42: ... just before the CMB was created, the universe was filled with this plasma that consisted mostly of protons, electrons, and helium ...
  • 02:53: That plasma was effectively opaque because photons couldn't travel far without bouncing off all those free electrons.

2016-03-02: What’s Wrong With the Big Bang Theory?

  • 05:19: It's full of this hot glowing hydrogen plasma.

2016-02-24: Why the Big Bang Definitely Happened

  • 03:46: A plasma.
  • 03:47: As the universe expanded, this plasma cooled.
  • 03:51: ... of 3,000 degrees Kelvin, at which point the entire universe slipped from plasma to gas as the first hydrogen atoms ...

2015-12-09: How to Build a Black Hole

  • 02:33: Now, beneath the thin atmosphere of ion plasma, a neutron star is a quantum mechanical entity.

2015-09-23: Does Dark Matter BREAK Physics?

  • 05:53: Remember the hot, smooth plasma way back in the early universe that produced the CMB?
  • 05:59: ... in order to go from that highly smooth ocean of orange plasma to today's highly structured universe of clusters and galaxies, ...

2015-03-25: Cosmic Microwave Background Explained

  • 03:13: This ionized soup is called a plasma.
  • 03:22: ... because there were no neutral atoms yet, the light the plasma emitted just couldn't travel very far before it would run into an ...
  • 03:51: Now as this plasma cooled, its temperature eventually dropped below the 3,000 or so degree mark, where neutral atoms could finally form.
  • 04:04: ... light that the plasma had emitted then just before neutralized was one last hurrah, one final ...
  • 04:24: That's what thinned out the plasma and made it cool down in the first place.
  • 05:01: And all those atoms from that plasma?
50 result(s) shown.