
20221208: How Are Quasiparticles Different From Particles?
 11:15: ... of a phonon, mixed up and indistinguishable from all the other crazy oscillations across the ...
 12:24: ... a network of cooper pairs move together in the mutually induced resonant oscillation of the metal lattice An amazing thing about Cooper pairs is that they ...


20220803: What Happens Inside a Proton?
 07:07: ... about that fact previously. Real particles are sustained oscillations in a quantum field that have real energy and consistent ...


20220427: How the Higgs Mechanism Give Things Mass
 02:50: ... That gauge field turns out to be electromagnetism, and oscillations in this field are the photon  our first gauge boson ...
 07:33: ... of this field are just oscillations of the field strength across the lowest point, where the ...
 09:59: ... Oscillations in that field would be a gauge boson. You can think about those ...
 13:58: ... of all, we see that the Goldstone bosons, which are just oscillations in the theta angle, can be absorbed into this U(1) ...


20220223: Are Cosmic Strings Cracks in the Universe?
 00:58: ... The field at any point can oscillate around that value, and those oscillations can have quantized energy states. These vibrations can ...
 10:09: ... should be emitted in beams in the direction of oscillation of the string, so we might see flashes as these beams pass over ...


20211117: Are Black Holes Actually Fuzzballs?
 05:52: ... string theory, all elementary particles are oscillations in 1dimensional strands that themselves are embedded within complex, ...


20210818: How Vacuum Decay Would Destroy The Universe
 01:31: ... to its neighboring rings, and so it can transfer its oscillations, causing a wave to propagate through space. And there are ...
 06:08: ... their adjacent points across space, which is why their oscillations propagate as particles. Now this isn’t necessarily an ...


20210810: How to Communicate Across the Quantum Multiverse
 04:30: ... state after being stretched or displaced, because that can produce an oscillation, and in which adjacent points pull on each other, cause that can cause ...
 05:21: ... the displacement at each point. That’s the case for the most idealized oscillation  the simple harmonic oscillator. And that tends to be a good ...


20210713: Where Are The Worlds In Many Worlds?
 03:46: Where a pond ripple is an oscillation in surface height, the wavefunction is an oscillation in probability, or more accurately probability density.


20210316: The NEW Crisis in Cosmology
 10:08: ... rings as a sort of standard ruler. These “baryon acoustic oscillations” are the fossils of ancient sound waves that reverberated ...


20210309: How Does Gravity Affect Light?
 07:40: The idea is that any wave can be described as an infinite number of pointlike oscillations, each of which produces new waves.


20210217: Gravitational Wave Background Discovered?
 00:00: ... colossal gravitational waves must also exist waves whose single oscillations span the solar system or even the distance to the nearest stars such ...


20210126: Is Dark Matter Made of Particles?
 12:03: ... business across the universe  interacting by dark forces, all of them oscillations in their own dark quantum fields  perhaps with their own complexity and ...


20201104: Electroweak Theory and the Origin of the Fundamental Forces
 08:16: The bosons of the version of SU(2) that I just described are simple lightspeed oscillations in their fields, just like photons.


20200527: Does Gravity Require Extra Dimensions?
 10:28: In some cases, rotating masses produce oscillations in the torsion pendulum.


20200218: Does Consciousness Influence Quantum Mechanics?
 15:37: ... it's a dip in energy, the field can oscillate within that dip  and that oscillation is our axion particle if you also assume quantized energy ...


20200211: Are Axions Dark Matter?
 06:54: ... you might recall that in quantum field theory a particle is just an oscillation in a quantum field. So with a new field  this theta field  we have the ...


20200106: How To Detect a Neutrino
 01:51: ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ Measuring neutrino oscillations is a big part of how we unlock their secrets, but it's not easy.
 02:16: ... 𝘭𝘪𝘨𝘩𝘵 𝘳𝘩𝘺𝘵𝘩𝘮𝘪𝘤 𝘨𝘶𝘪𝘵𝘢𝘳 𝘱𝘪𝘤𝘬𝘪𝘯𝘨)♪ (title) "MINOS: Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search" ♪ (𝘭𝘪𝘨𝘩𝘵 𝘳𝘩𝘺𝘵𝘩𝘮𝘪𝘤 𝘨𝘶𝘪𝘵𝘢𝘳 𝘱𝘪𝘤𝘬𝘪𝘯𝘨) ♪ MATT: The weakly ...
 05:58: ... the particles ♪ ♪ From those paths, we can learn all about the neutrino oscillation, ♪ ♪ and that includes the flavour of the neutrino that caused it  be it ...
 06:15: ... ♪ ♪ so if we detect a tau or electron neutrino, then we've seen neutrino oscillation. ...
 06:24: ♪ ♪ We can use our measurement to determine how much oscillation has occurred.


20191209: The Doomsday Argument
 16:21: ... in passing that is worth repeating: that is that the baryon acoustic oscillation signatures seen in galaxy clusters are an independent measure of ...


20191111: Does Life Need a Multiverse to Exist?
 09:04: ... quantum fields, which fill all of space and whose oscillations produce the familiar particles of matter or radiation, were expected to ...


20191007: Black Hole Harmonics
 03:46: The harmonic oscillations of 2D surfaces – like drum skins, bells, or the event horizons of black holes – are a good bit more complex than in 1D.
 03:56: In the case of the event horizon, or any sphericalish surface, we break down the oscillations not into sine waves but into spherical harmonics.
 04:05: ... of a sphere, and each spherical harmonic can represent a single, pure oscillation on that spherical surface with a set ...
 04:19: A harmonic oscillation that decays over time is called a quasinormal mode.
 04:49: Well, we can answer that be asking what harmonics are present in that oscillation, and how quickly do each of those harmonics fade away.
 05:08: ... that right after merger the black hole would be too chaotic – the oscillations should be “nonlinear” or in other words not well represented by adding ...
 06:34: ... the waveform was nicely simulated by spherical harmonic oscillations right from the point of merger, so it was not the chaotic mess ...
 09:24: ... the nature of the final black hole properties is embedded in those final oscillations. ...
 10:08: ... so mass and spin should define everything – including the nature of the oscillations during ...
 10:19: ... test the nohair theorem by checking whether the frequency of oscillations and the time for the decay of those oscillations agrees perfectly with ...
 10:34: The oscillations are consistent with a black hole purely defined by its mass and spin.


20190806: What Caused the Big Bang?
 05:22: ... the way, an elementary particle is just an oscillation in this field strength  a little packet of energy held by the field. If ...


20190328: Could the Universe End by Tearing Apart Every Atom?
 10:58: ... the patterns of the Cosmic Microwave Background, in the baryon acoustic oscillations and in supernovae  We've talked about all of these thing ...


20190306: The Impossibility of Perpetual Motion Machines
 15:07: ... took long enough that the patterns of the baryon acoustic oscillations frozen into both the CMB and in galaxy rings were blurred out quite a ...


20190220: Secrets of the Cosmic Microwave Background
 01:47: ... explored these baryon acoustic oscillations in the last week's episode and that's really worth watching first if you ...
 02:05: ... in and out of their overdense regions They oscillated And the number of oscillations depended on how large that overdensity was In some places the ...
 07:42: ... use of the second peak we need to use an analogy We can think of these oscillations as being like heavy masses attached to a spring Release the mass then it ...
 14:23: ... In our previous episode we started our discussion of the baryonacoustic oscillation the actual source or our CMB power spectrum Let's see what you guys had ...


20190207: Sound Waves from the Beginning of Time
 00:22: These are the Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO), and they may hold the key to understanding the nature of dark energy.
 01:15: Today, we'll talk about another measurement that may help resolve this crisis: The baryon acoustic oscillations.
 07:47: Density everywhere oscillated with a rate of oscillation depending on the size of the initial fluctuation.
 07:54: ... are the oscillations in the baryon acoustic oscillations, and the complex signature of that ...
 10:36: ... baryon acoustic oscillations signal was first spotted in 2005 by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in the ...
 11:19: It requires an independent test of the expansion history. Enter the baryon acoustic oscillations.
 12:06: The baryon acoustic oscillations agree with and confirm what we measure using supernovae distances The expansion of the universe is accelerating.


20190124: The Crisis in Cosmology
 08:13: These counteractive forces produced oscillations,...
 08:20: These are the baryon acoustic oscillations,...
 08:36: And so those oscillations stopped.
 08:38: The state of the oscillations at the moment of that release...
 08:55: ...tells us which oscillation modes...


20190109: Are Dark Matter And Dark Energy The Same?
 09:49: But there’s no real oscillation.


20181121: 'Oumuamua Is Not Aliens
 14:19: What changes is neutrino oscillations.
 14:31: The rate of oscillation depends on the tiny mass of the neutrino.
 14:47: This in turn changes the probabilities of oscillation and suppresses oscillations to tau neutrinos.


20181107: Why String Theory is Right
 11:28: So, with our quantized equations of motion in hand, you can predict the quantum oscillations of our string.


20181018: What are the Strings in String Theory?
 03:51: In fact, what if all forcecarrying particles result from oscillations in tiny strings?


20181010: Computing a Universe Simulation
 01:04: ... interact with their neighbors by a simple set of rules, leading to oscillations, elementary particles, atoms, and ultimately to all of the emergent laws ...


20180815: Quantum Theory's Most Incredible Prediction
 06:35: It seethes with a faint quantum buzz, infinite phantom oscillations that add infinite complication to any electromagnetic interaction.


20180711: Quantum Invariance & The Origin of The Standard Model
 03:40: The function is an oscillation in quantum possibility, moving through space and time.
 04:03: Phase is just the wave's current state in its updown oscillation.
 09:13: ... like considering its internal or self energy and allowing quantized oscillations in the field ...
 09:23: Those oscillations in our new electromagnetic field turn out to be the photon.
 10:02: ... symmetries are called gauge fields, and they all have their associated oscillations, their associated ...


20180704: Will A New Neutrino Change The Standard Model?
 04:55: That oscillation is what gives these particles their mass.
 06:28: Now, we know that neutrinos have mass due to a completely different type of oscillation.
 07:52: According to the standard model, that oscillation should be extremely rare over the very tiny distance of the neutrino beam.
 08:07: But one way to speed up that transition is to introduce sterile neutrinos as an intermediate step in the oscillation.


20180516: Noether's Theorem and The Symmetries of Reality
 07:45: ... can rotate the complex phase of an oscillation in a quantum field by any amount, and the observable properties of that ...


20180418: Using Stars to See Gravitational Waves
 07:38: If a gravitation wave frequency matches the natural resonant frequency of a star, oscillations can be set up inside the star.


20180117: Horizon Radiation
 02:45: That oscillation can be distributed over some region of space, representing the possible positions of the particle.
 04:31: Now imagine an oscillation in any one of these locations.
 04:57: The equations we write to describe the oscillations are coupled to each other.
 05:03: This coupling allows the oscillation the particle to evolve through space.
 05:08: But it also makes it devilishly difficult to solve those equations because the individual oscillations in space can't be solved independently.
 06:13: ... in momentum space, that single, perfectly localized position oscillation can also be described as an infinite number of unlocalized momentum ...
 06:31: ... we add these momentum oscillations together with the right weightings, they cancel out everywhere except at ...
 06:59: Now it starts out with no oscillations, analogous to the vacuum state in quantum field theory.
 07:06: If we were to make an excitation at a particular spot make a particle, we hit that spot with a drumstick and set the oscillation going.
 07:21: ... could, in principle, make the same oscillation by simultaneously hitting the drum everywhere with an infinite ...
 07:48: Those momentum oscillations have two important qualities.
 08:05: Dealing with uncoupled equations allows you to add and subtract oscillations without affecting the neighboring momenta.
 08:12: However, changing the momentum modes does affect the superposition the sum of all oscillations, for example, by creating or destroying particles.
 08:22: OK, so a single particle can be described as many oscillations in momentum space.
 08:28: ... oscillations can be reconfigured with our infinite drumstick to add new particles or ...
 08:51: ... of particles, one at a time, by changing the number of particles or oscillations in each momentum ...
 10:01: For example, we no longer have access to part of the skin, and oscillations can reflect from the boundary.
 11:04: So you can be that horizon's drum skin to produce oscillations that are consistent with the infinite, unhorizoned skin.
 11:13: But doing so leaves additional oscillations.
 13:32: The frequency spectra for resonant oscillations of several stars were shifted to a range audible to human hearing.


20180110: What Do Stars Sound Like?
 01:33: ... waves reflect around the stellar interior, setting up global oscillations, natural resonant frequencies that carry information about stars ...
 01:54: The fastgrowing field of asteroseismology uses these oscillations to probe the interiors of the distant stars.
 03:58: These pmode oscillations follow the rules of spherical harmonics, taking the form of regular patterns of density oscillations throughout the star.
 04:21: The strongest oscillations in the sun are in the two to four millihertz range.
 04:26: These are the sun's 5minute oscillations.
 04:31: Well, for the sun, we can map these oscillations in two ways changes in brightness and changes in velocity.
 04:38: Brightness of spectral lines in the sun's atmosphere can change by around one part per million over the course of an oscillation.
 04:45: At the same time, gas moves vertically in and out during the same oscillation, reaching velocities of 0.1 meters per second.
 04:57: And because many different modes overlap, the complex overlapping effects of these oscillations are separated using Fourier analysis.
 05:13: ... short, the many overlapping modes form complex oscillations on the surface of the star, but these can be deconstructed into simple ...
 06:51: They're too far away to resolve their surfaces, so we only see the global effects of their oscillations.
 08:56: We're only now learning to decipher the complex overlay of tones in stellar oscillations.


20171206: Understanding the Uncertainty Principle with Quantum Fourier Series
 10:26: ... localized at one spot in space, can so be described as infinite oscillations in momentum space, spanning all possible ...
 10:39: But each of these oscillations in momentum space are equivalent to particles with highly specific momenta.


20171102: The Vacuum Catastrophe
 01:40: Higher energy oscillations represent the presence of real particles.
 01:45: However, even the lowest possible energy oscillation, the one corresponding to the absence of particles, the socalled vacuum state, has some energy.
 01:55: ... the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, the vacuum state of any fuel oscillation must be half of the tiny Planck constant times the frequency of that ...


20171025: The Missing Mass Mystery
 04:23: The interplay between baryonic and photons resulted in density oscillations.
 04:28: ... rippling outwards from high density regions, these baryonic acoustic oscillations helped produce a smaller family of speckles compared to the largest ...
 04:43: Those large blobs are driven by dark matter, which doesn't interact with light, so it can't produce density oscillations.


20171019: The Nature of Nothing
 02:15: ... fields oscillate, vibrate with different energies, and those oscillations are the electrons, quarks, neutrinos, photons, gluons, et cetera, that ...
 02:28: Now these fields are quantum fields, which means their oscillations can't just have any old energy.


20170810: The OneElectron Universe
 08:23: We now think of electrons as oscillations, as waves, in the more fundamental electron field.


20170628: The First Quantum Field Theory
 03:09: For example, in a 3D room full of air, sound waves are oscillations in air density.
 04:36: The electromagnetic field is a quantum field and so these oscillations have a minimum amplitude.
 04:43: The smallest possible oscillation above zero is an indivisible little packet of energy that we call a photon.
 07:31: ... oscillation at each point can be complicated but it has to be built up from a number ...
 07:53: His mathematics, then, kept track of the number of particles, or quantum oscillations, in each of these states.
 08:26: He also coined the name second quantization for the process of counting the changing number of quantum oscillations, or particles per state.
 10:48: Remember, this approach began with thinking of photons as oscillations in the electromagnetic field.
 10:55: So does this mean that all particles are also oscillations in fields?
 11:22: There's an electron field whose oscillations are what we know as the electron and the antielectron.
 11:28: ... and gluons and of course for the famous Higgs boson, which is just an oscillation in the Higgs ...


20170329: How Time Becomes Space Inside a Black Hole
 12:28: Colin Brown asks if the spin flip oscillation is only dependent on the electromagnetic field oscillation.
 12:43: So the time crystal oscillation and the EM field oscillation are in resonance.
 13:33: And the oscillations were supposed to go on forever without any energy inputs.
 13:54: ... are still exciting, because the system did develop their own internal oscillations that resisted changes from the outside forcing EM field ...
 14:06: So the oscillations were, in a sense, fundamental, just not sustainable.


20170315: Time Crystals!
 01:09: He suggested a type of matter that exhibits a sort of fundamental oscillation over time.
 03:07: More, he imagined a substance for which oscillations were the most fundamental lowest energy or ground states.
 04:43: The spinflip oscillation will be determined by the period of the laser.
 05:01: But the paper proposes that if you let go of the electrons, their spin oscillations should continue.
 05:29: So two, three, four, et cetera spin oscillations for every EM field oscillation in the laser.
 07:08: They used microwaves to generate oscillations in the spins of nitrogen impurities inside a diamond.
 07:23: The ytterbium ions oscillations were twice the laser period.


20170202: The Geometry of Causality
 12:07: ... proposes that particles that we see in regular 4D spacetime result from oscillations within many more coiled dimensions, socalled ...


20161109: Did Dark Energy Just Disappear?
 10:53: ... leading us away from that little corner also: like baryon acoustic oscillations, but I'm gonna have to leave that one to our previous episodes ...


20160720: The Future of Gravitational Waves
 00:43: These oscillations echoed the final 1/10 of a second of the end spiral and merger of a pair of black holes, each around 30 times the mass of the Sun.


20160224: Why the Big Bang Definitely Happened
 06:21: The fancy name is baryon acoustic oscillations which cause ringlike clustering of the CMB fluctuations.


20160211: LIGO's First Detection of Gravitational Waves!
 04:31: ... oscillations have a frequency, number of stretches and squeezes per second, that ...


20151216: The Higgs Mechanism Explained
 03:00: ... the tiny neutrino has mass, and it was the measurement of those neutrino oscillations the won the 2015 Nobel Prize in ...


20150827: Watch THIS! (New Host + Challenge Winners)
 00:41: ... proportionality constants for how much time it takes to do a complete oscillation. ...
 00:50: ... find analogous quantities and figure out an expression for the period of oscillation of a particle falling through a ...


20150819: Do Events Inside Black Holes Happen?
 13:56: What you are mistaking for tides is seiching in those bodies of water, namely resonant oscillations of the water due to the shape of the lakes.
