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2022-12-14: How Can Matter Be BOTH Liquid AND Gas?

  • 00:03: ... the plasma that the sun is made of, or at extreme densities we get the nuclear matter of neutron ...
  • 14:26: ... condensates and the resulting superconductors and superfluids; nuclear matter of various types; photonic matter; various spin-based states from ...

2022-11-23: How To See Black Holes By Catching Neutrinos

  • 01:55: But perhaps the most characteristic property of the neutrino is that they only interact via the weak nuclear force and gravity.
  • 17:31: ... at nuclear masses much higher than the current periodic it may be possible for ...

2022-11-16: Are there Undiscovered Elements Beyond The Periodic Table?

  • 06:07: You might think that after a century and a half of thinking about nuclear physics, we’d have all of this figured out.
  • 06:52: On the other hand we have the even-stronger strong nuclear force holding the nucleons together.
  • 07:21: If a nucleus gets too big, the strong force can’t keep things together and various types of nuclear decay become inevitable.
  • 07:50: That’s why neutrons are so useful - they help separate protons so that the strong nuclear force stays stronger than electromagnetism.
  • 08:59: ... similar happens in this case, there are magic numbers which complete nuclear shells, they are 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, 126 for neutrons, and 2, 8, 20, ...
  • 09:54: Pairs of up-down nucleons form these stable-little spin-zero partnerships in so-called nuclear pairing interactions.
  • 10:49: It seems there are more mysterious forces at work besides neutron-padding, nuclear-shell filling, and spin coupling.
  • 10:56: It turns out there are no simple set of principles to determine nuclear stability.
  • 13:56: ... we want to get there our conventional nuclear reactors and particle accelerators will not be enough, we will have to ...
  • 14:54: ... example - no stable isotopes, but we can breed it from uranium in nuclear reactors, where it becomes a critical part of the fission process in ...

2022-09-14: Could the Higgs Boson Lead Us to Dark Matter?

  • 01:06: They tug and push at each other via the electromagnetic and strong nuclear forces.
  • 06:01: ... and whatever is made of quarks; it excludes the W boson of the weak nuclear ...
  • 06:14: It excludes the color-charged gluons of the strong nuclear force.

2022-08-24: What Makes The Strong Force Strong?

  • 00:10: And today we’re going nuclear, as we dive into the weird world of quantum chromodynamics.
  • 01:11: Namely, the strong nuclear force.

2022-08-03: What Happens Inside a Proton?

  • 06:02: ... coupling strength for the strong nuclear force is ingeniously named the strong coupling ...

2022-07-27: How Many States Of Matter Are There?

  • 00:05: We have solids, liquids and gasses, and plasmas, quark-gluon plasmas, nuclear matter, bose-einstein condensates, neutronium, time crystals, and sand.
  • 09:07: For example, liquid water contains many little nuggets of frozen “solid” nuclear material.

2022-06-22: Is Interstellar Travel Impossible?

  • 11:24: ... would be subjected to levels of radiation comparable to the core of a nuclear ...
  • 17:43: ... that means reaching the conditions where electromagnetism and the weak nuclear force combine, but almost certainly also the strong force and perhaps ...

2022-05-18: What If the Galactic Habitable Zone LIMITS Intelligent Life?

  • 03:40: ... protostar became hotter   and hotter and eventually ignited in nuclear  fusion. The outward flow of fusion-generated   energy supports ...
  • 14:14: ... mythology episode, which features a  visit from Matt to explain nuclear ...

2022-03-16: What If Charge is NOT Fundamental?

  • 08:32: The quark model for nucleons led to a description  of the strong nuclear force via this SU(3) stuff to give us quantum chromodynamics.

2022-02-23: Are Cosmic Strings Cracks in the Universe?

  • 00:58: ... This gives us our familiar   electromagnetic, strong and weak nuclear forces. But at very high temperatures,   the complexities of ...

2021-10-13: New Results in Quantum Tunneling vs. The Speed of Light

  • 02:03: For example, the protons and neutrons in an atomic nucleus are held in the potential barrier of the strong nuclear force.
  • 03:44: ... “collapse” into one of those two states - either business as usual, or a nuclear ...
  • 04:03: ... necessary for the nuclear fusion reactions that power the sun, in some biological processes, and ...

2021-10-05: Why Magnetic Monopoles SHOULD Exist

  • 08:53: In the early 70s physicists had managed to explain the weak nuclear force and unify it with electromagnetism.
  • 09:08: With that squared away, physicists were working to bring the strong nuclear force into the fold with the so-called Grand Unified Theories.

2021-09-15: Neutron Stars: The Most Extreme Objects in the Universe

  • 05:48: ... soon those energies are high enough to drive some very exotic nuclear reactions. Electrons start to   be driven into the iron nuclei ...
  • 08:15: ... weird.   Welcome to the pasta. Specifically,   nuclear pasta. This is perhaps the least known and most freaky state of ...
  • 09:34: ... containing many millions of protons and neutrons.   Nuclear physicists affectionately call this phase  of matter spaghetti. At ...
  • 10:06: ... enormous strength of nuclear pasta allows it to resist the insane gravitational ...

2021-08-18: How Vacuum Decay Would Destroy The Universe

  • 08:30: ... particles.   The ability for stars to form and undergo  nuclear fusion, and the ability for chemistry   to work as it does, ...

2021-08-03: How An Extreme New Star Could Change All Cosmology

  • 01:45: ... their lives, they blast off their outer layers in their final fits of nuclear fusion. This exposes their naked cores, which by now are insanely hot ...

2021-07-21: How Magnetism Shapes The Universe

  • 01:29: The nuclear forces are short range, and the electrostatic force never adds up to much because its positive and negative charges tend to cancel it out.

2021-04-13: What If Dark Matter Is Just Black Holes?

  • 06:53: ... enough heat to allow the stars' ultra dense carbon and oxygen to undergo nuclear ...

2021-03-23: Zeno's Paradox & The Quantum Zeno Effect

  • 07:47: ... same phenomenon that allows particles to “teleport” out of nuclei during nuclear ...

2021-01-26: Is Dark Matter Made of Particles?

  • 01:44: ... with each other through the standard model forces - the strong and weak nuclear forces and ...

2020-12-15: The Supernova At The End of Time

  • 04:48: Once its nuclear fuel supply runs out, there would be no outward flow of energy to resist the gravitational crush.
  • 10:06: But Caplan performed a detailed analysis of the nuclear reactions that lead to an iron star, and found that the delicate balance is threatened.

2020-11-04: Electroweak Theory and the Origin of the Fundamental Forces

  • 01:36: While the brand new field of quantum mechanics could describe the behaviour of electrons, nuclear processes remained mysterious.
  • 13:01: ... this grand quest to find deeper symmetries that could bring the strong nuclear force into the fold, allowing us to collect the full Pokemon-evolution ...

2020-10-13: Do the Past and Future Exist?

  • 14:47: ... something may be ahead of us - like nuclear war, environmental destruction, ... Or it may be behind us, like it ...

2020-09-21: Could Life Evolve Inside Stars?

  • 00:08: There’s Stanislaw Lem’s sentient ocean in Solaris, or the neutron star civilization made of nuclear matter in Robert L Forward’s Dragon’s Egg.
  • 04:27: ... and Chudnovsky imagine a type of nuclear life, in which these chains form complex structures that can have a sort ...
  • 05:24: This is something we know is essential for any life, including nuclear life.
  • 09:27: Or perhaps the nuclear reactions in the core proceed faster, hastening the dissipation of the star’s energy through space.

2020-09-01: How Do We Know What Stars Are Made Of?

  • 00:28: ... stars are giant balls of fiery hydrogen and helium, powered by raging nuclear furnaces in their ...
  • 10:20: ... Eddington himself had postulated the whole nuclear fusion thing just a few years earlier in 1920, but now knowing what ...

2020-08-17: How Stars Destroy Each Other

  • 07:58: ... which is a star not quite massive enough to generate its own energy by nuclear ...

2020-08-10: Theory of Everything Controversies: Livestream

  • 00:00: ... of inspiration from both of you besides thinking more about the weak nuclear force what advice would you give to a young aspiring physicist uh ...

2020-05-27: Does Gravity Require Extra Dimensions?

  • 00:54: ... the other forces - I’m talking 10^24 times weaker than even the weak nuclear ...

2020-02-11: Are Axions Dark Matter?

  • 00:03: ... does the strong nuclear force, the fundamental symmetries of nature, and a laundry detergent ...
  • 01:05: ... flip. But not all. In a previous episode we talked about how the weak nuclear force is NOT symmetric under combined charge and mirror inversion and - ...
  • 02:11: ... in the weak force it’s natural to ask if it happens in the strong nuclear force also. The strong force is the fundamental force that binds quarks ...
  • 07:47: It would interact very weakly via the strong and weak nuclear forces, and via gravity.

2020-01-27: Hacking the Nature of Reality

  • 03:24: Those nuclear particles were originally thought to be elementary - to have no internal structure, just like the electron.
  • 06:04: At the time, nuclear scattering experiments were producing a startling variety of different particles.
  • 06:19: But at the time, prior to the discovery of quarks, no point-like, elementary nuclear particles were known.
  • 06:25: ... for smaller and smaller particles, Chew and collaborators promoted a “nuclear democracy”, in which no nuclear particle is more elementary than any ...
  • 06:37: They attempted to build scattering matrices with no elementary particles at all, and with no details of nuclear structure.
  • 09:45: ... of the behavior of quarks and gluons revealed that the strong nuclear force does not actually approach infinite strength as was once feared, ...
  • 11:35: ... so string theory was born - at first as a description of strong nuclear force interactions before quantum chromodynamics took over - but then as ...

2020-01-20: Solving the Three Body Problem

  • 13:37: ... chance to oscillate, they remember how they were made. Neutrinos made in nuclear reactors are made with electrons and if they interact again, they make ...

2020-01-06: How To Detect a Neutrino

  • 01:57: ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ Neutrinos are among the most elusive elementary particles of nature, ♪ ♪ only interacting by the weak nuclear force and gravity.
  • 04:16: ♪ ♪ As we mentioned: they only experience the weak nuclear force and gravity, ♪ ((𝘴𝘰𝘧𝘵)) ♪ and the latter is so weak we can ignore it altogether.
  • 05:05: ... the massless photon or gluon, which carry the electromagnetic and strong nuclear ...

2019-11-11: Does Life Need a Multiverse to Exist?

  • 05:36: Other slight changes in nuclear fine tuning would also massively reduce the amount of oxygen that stars produce.
  • 05:44: This all comes does to the fine-tuning of the strength of the strong nuclear force.
  • 06:51: But the fine-tuning is still there - we need the right balance between between the strengths of the strong nuclear force and gravity.
  • 07:19: ... the weak nuclear force is important; it regulates the conversion of protons into ...
  • 07:47: ... span a vast range of values nearly 10^40 from the strong nuclear force to gravity, and there’s no apparent pattern in their values. As ...

2019-11-04: Why We Might Be Alone in the Universe

  • 03:48: Such a filter might be after our own stage of development - climate change, nuclear obliteration, whatever - still waiting out there to wipe us out.

2019-09-23: Is Pluto a Planet?

  • 06:54: ... giant orbs of gas aren’t massive enough to ignite nuclear fusion in their cores like a true star, but still seemed too massive to ...

2019-08-19: What Happened Before the Big Bang?

  • 05:59: Those are theories that combine the strong nuclear force with electromagnetic and weak forces.

2019-07-18: Did Time Start at the Big Bang?

  • 01:56: ... what we expect if the entire universe was a dense billions of degrees nuclear furnace for the first several minutes of its existence In fact, There's ...

2019-07-15: The Quantum Internet

  • 11:32: In a recent episode we talked about Thorium and the future of Nuclear Energy!
  • 11:38: austin holbrook says we need to do a better job of breaking the common misconception that nuclear power plants can explode like Atom bombs.
  • 13:00: Nuclear fuel - typically uranium - is encased in graphite balls.
  • 15:03: Battlemechs, submarines, spaceships, DeLorean time machines - nuclear is probably the easiest option for the badass vehicles of the future.

2019-07-01: Thorium and the Future of Nuclear Energy

  • 00:00: ... too cheap to meter That was the promise of nuclear power in the 1950s at least according to Luis Strauss chairman of the ...
  • 00:33: ... breaking chemical bonds and Matter-antimatter annihilation we have nuclear energy the strong nuclear force holding nuclei together contains an ...
  • 02:49: ... maybe we can Before we can understand those, we'll need to review how nuclear reactors work Every fission reactor exploits the same phenomenon Certain ...

2019-06-17: How Black Holes Kill Galaxies

  • 12:55: In fact, it's longer by around 44% or one over the natural log of 2 Thanks Anthony, I guess I need to retake nuclear physics.
  • 13:12: ... may be that some neutron stars are actually "Strange Stars" whose nuclear material is composed of strange matter which means up, down, and strange ...

2019-06-06: The Alchemy of Neutron Star Collisions

  • 00:00: ... idea that most atomic nuclei in our bodies were created in the nuclear furnaces and explosive deaths of stars that lived in the ancient ...
  • 00:34: ... periodic table between carbon and iron were produced in onion shells by nuclear fusion in the cores of very massive stars during the last phases of ...
  • 02:47: ... neutrons were stabilized by extreme pressure but once released this nuclear group expands and destabilizers it breaks up into droplets of neutrons ...

2019-04-10: The Holographic Universe Explained

  • 12:21: The techniques of AdS/CFT correspondence are even extended to disparate fields like nuclear and condensed matter physics.

2019-01-16: Our Antimatter, Mirrored, Time-Reversed Universe

  • 02:02: ... counterparts but now the decay electrons travel upwards with the nuclear spin and away from the detector such a clock wouldn't tick at all taken ...
  • 03:02: ... well antimatter atoms have negatively charged nuclei which means their nuclear magnetic fields point in the opposite direction to regular matter ...

2018-12-12: Quantum Physics in a Mirror Universe

  • 00:02: ... at least for tests involving gravity electromagnetism and the strong nuclear forces it was assumed that the weak nuclear force was the same deal ...

2018-11-14: Supersymmetric Particle Found?

  • 02:49: That's the energy at which the electromagnetic and weak nuclear forces merge into the same force.

2018-10-25: Will We Ever Find Alien Life?

  • 11:26: But the principle applies to a doomsday tech, nuclear weapons, genocidal nanobots, willful or negligent environmental destruction, you name it.

2018-10-18: What are the Strings in String Theory?

  • 01:52: The idea started in the 60s with efforts to understand the behavior of hadrons, collections of quarks bound by the gluons of the strong nuclear force.
  • 02:23: In this case, the strings are stretched out tubes of strong nuclear force, vibrating elastic bands made of gluons.

2018-10-03: How to Detect Extra Dimensions

  • 04:44: ... is vastly weaker, 10 to the power of 32 times weaker, than even the weak nuclear ...
  • 04:56: The only reason we see so much gravity is that its range is infinite-- and unlike the nuclear forces.

2018-08-01: How Close To The Sun Can Humanity Get?

  • 01:01: Powered by the giant nuclear furnace of its core.
  • 01:05: ... energy it pumps out equivalent to a few hundred quadrillion nuclear power stations, provide essentially, all of the energy to sustain ...
  • 09:43: They'll try edible plastic and bring you to unexpected places, like a garage in Seattle with a nuclear reactor in it.

2018-07-11: Quantum Invariance & The Origin of The Standard Model

  • 09:49: ... the fields that give rise to electromagnetism, the weak and the strong nuclear forces, ...

2018-07-04: Will A New Neutrino Change The Standard Model?

  • 00:36: They don't interact by the electromagnetic or strong nuclear forces, only by the weak nuclear force and gravity.
  • 01:38: Those regular neutrinos are spotted when they interact with matter via the weak nuclear force.
  • 05:21: Chirality determines whether a particle can interact with the weak nuclear force.

2018-05-02: The Star at the End of Time

  • 01:55: ... or around the energy equivalent of 20 million times the Earth's entire nuclear arsenal every ...

2018-02-21: The Death of the Sun

  • 10:18: ... point, after a threshold, they come into range of each other's strong nuclear force, and the direction of the force turns around so the protons fold ...

2017-10-19: The Nature of Nothing

  • 06:03: On the other hand, it always takes a baseline chunk of energy to create a gluon, the carrier of the strong nuclear force, because gluons have mass.
  • 06:13: That means there's a limit to how long virtual gluons can exist and travel, which in turn makes the strong nuclear force a very short-range force.

2017-09-28: Are the Fundamental Constants Changing?

  • 09:08: For example, there's the Oklo natural nuclear reactor in Gabon in central Africa.

2017-09-13: Neutron Stars Collide in New LIGO Signal?

  • 13:03: Nuclear fallout is dangerous enough, extra dangerous with a bit of wind.

2017-07-19: The Real Star Wars

  • 02:22: ... developed to the point that a single missile could deliver multiple nuclear warheads several thousand kilometers away in a ...
  • 05:50: For Excalibur, that source was a nuclear bomb set off behind an array of laser tubes.
  • 07:19: The treaty is now ratified by 107 nations and seriously limits the potential for nuclear space war.
  • 12:23: The Cold War arms race was on track to fill Earth's orbit with satellite-destroying weaponry and nuclear warheads.
  • 13:19: It covers nuclear energy and weaponry, as well as satellites, but I think I had the most fun with the episode on the invention of the crossbow.

2017-05-31: The Fate of the First Stars

  • 04:43: Now, the rate of nuclear fusion reactions is incredibly sensitive to temperature.

2017-04-05: Telescopes on the Moon

  • 12:11: NuclearCraft Mod spotted a missing plus sign in our full [INAUDIBLE] line element.

2017-02-02: The Geometry of Causality

  • 13:57: Mike Cammiso asks whether nuclear fusion occurs inside accretion disks.

2017-01-11: The EM Drive: Fact or Fantasy?

  • 04:59: ... levitate a good sized human, so the power output of a typical commercial nuclear power plant or the power consumption of a time traveling ...

2016-11-16: Strange Stars

  • 06:45: The electromagnetic force and the weak nuclear force were unified as the electroweak force.

2016-09-14: Self-Replicating Robots and Galactic Domination

  • 11:57: But there are several solutions, and safer nuclear power-- maybe thorium-- could be an answer.

2016-09-07: Is There a Fifth Fundamental Force? + Quantum Eraser Answer

  • 01:59: Well, in short, it's because the anomaly was observed for a very particular transition between the beryllium nuclear states.
  • 02:34: See, three of the four fundamental forces, electromagnetism and the strong and weak nuclear forces, are all communicated by these gauge bosons things.
  • 03:11: ... produced in the LHC, like the megaelectronvolt transitions of atomic nuclear energy ...

2016-07-20: The Future of Gravitational Waves

  • 00:09: That's what I'm going to do now and following that, I'll get to the solution to the nuclear physics challenge question.
  • 07:03: ... how far from the center of the nucleus, the Coulomb potential of the nuclear protons, reaches the 8.78 mega electron volts of the alpha particle's ...

2016-06-29: Nuclear Physics Challenge

  • 00:06: We've been talking about quantum mechanics recently, and I think we're ready to do a bit of recreational nuclear physics.
  • 01:48: The walls of the box result from the strong nuclear force which holds the nucleus together.
  • 02:27: ... the size of the polonium 212 nucleus, which you can calculate from the nuclear radius relationship, which relates the radius of the nucleus to the ...
  • 03:54: Make sure you use the subject line Nuclear Physics Challenge to be in the running, because we filter by subject line.

2016-06-15: The Strange Universe of Gravitational Lensing

  • 10:18: Think about that alpha particle trying to tunnel through the potential energy wall of the strong nuclear force.
  • 10:34: That means it can spontaneously be in the region of the wall where the strong nuclear force is pulling it back towards the center.

2016-06-01: Is Quantum Tunneling Faster than Light?

  • 03:13: There an alpha particle is snugly bound into the nucleus by the strong nuclear force.
  • 04:10: There remains a tiny tail of probability outside the nucleus, beyond the reach of the strong nuclear force.

2016-05-04: Will Starshot's Insterstellar Journey Succeed?

  • 04:09: ... both as thrusters and as communication devices, and perhaps even a small nuclear ...

2016-04-13: Will the Universe Expand Forever?

  • 10:01: So last week we talked about nuclear synthesis.

2016-04-06: We Are Star Stuff

  • 03:28: ... after the Big Bang, the entire universe was hot and dense enough for nuclear fusion, for protons to slam together hard enough to overcome the ...
  • 03:54: ... once these nucleon are close enough, the binding energy of the strong nuclear force is stronger than the repulsion of the electrostatic or cooling ...

2016-03-16: Why is the Earth Round and the Milky Way Flat?

  • 07:11: Here the pressure comes from the upward flow of energy from the nuclear fusion engine in the core.

2016-03-02: What’s Wrong With the Big Bang Theory?

  • 01:52: ... you take this Higgs mass away from the particles that carry the weak nuclear force, they become just like the photon, which itself carries the ...
  • 02:49: ... 38 seconds, it's expected that this electroweak force and the strong nuclear force-- that's the force that holds atomic nuclei together-- also become ...

2016-02-24: Why the Big Bang Definitely Happened

  • 07:03: ... this time, nuclear fusion raged across the cosmos, baking some of the existing protons into ...

2016-01-06: The True Nature of Matter and Mass

  • 10:06: Then, without an infinite source and sink of weak hypercharge, the weak nuclear force and the electromagnetic force were all the same force.

2015-12-16: The Higgs Mechanism Explained

  • 04:26: ... except in this case, it lets only left-handed electrons feel the weak nuclear ...

2015-11-18: 5 Ways to Stop a Killer Asteroid

  • 01:54: For a rock around 500 meters in diameter, the strike will have the energy equivalent of all currently operational nuclear weapons in the world.
  • 02:12: At two to three kilometers, the sky goes dark from the ejector, and nuclear winter effects global climates.
  • 02:24: Nuclear winter lasts decades.

2015-11-05: Why Haven't We Found Alien Life?

  • 00:43: ... civilizations before they get to the galactic empire stage, whether by a nuclear war, environmental catastrophe, accidentally making a black hole that ...

2015-10-15: 5 REAL Possibilities for Interstellar Travel

  • 04:36: It's rocket science and nuclear physics, so you know, hard.
  • 06:13: ... the beam of a gigantic space laser blasting the power equivalent of 100 nuclear ...
  • 06:30: 10% light speed is pretty reasonable with modern materials like a carbon web sail driven by a microwave beam running on a single nuclear power plant.
  • 09:25: We just have to increase the world's nuclear arsenal by a factor of 200, which we shouldn't do unless it's a question of extinction.

2015-08-05: What Physics Teachers Get Wrong About Tides!

  • 10:09: ... by some kind of particle like electromagnetism by the photons, strong nuclear forces by the gluon, and so ...

2015-03-18: Can A Starfox Barrel Roll Work In Space?

  • 07:58: Another possibility raise is that maybe there exists an exotic but more stable state of nuclear matter involving strange quarks.

2015-03-11: What Will Destroy Planet Earth?

  • 00:00: Lots of unpleasant things from nuclear war to asteroid impacts could destroy life on Earth.

2015-02-18: Is It Irrational to Believe in Aliens?

  • 06:17: It can be something natural, like a virus or Godzilla, or species made, like a nuclear holocaust or out-of-control nanobots.
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