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2022-12-14: How Can Matter Be BOTH Liquid AND Gas?

  • 01:06: The reason solids melt and liquids boil is that rising heat energy allows the bonds between atoms and molecules to break.
  • 10:08: Due to its high density compared to a gas, it has more atoms or molecules to bond to the dissolved substance.
  • 10:39: ... to gas form, leaving a decaffeinated bean and a fine powder of caffeine molecules - I guess for the energy drink that you need after your decaffeinated ...

2022-11-23: How To See Black Holes By Catching Neutrinos

  • 03:29: When neutrinos pass through the ice of ice cube, one in a million interact with water molecules via the weak force.
  • 05:23: ... interact very strongly with the water molecules and so begin to bounce around immediately, leading to a bubble of ...
  • 06:13: When cosmic rays hit molecules in our atmosphere, many different particles can be produced, but the most annoying are muons and neutrinos.

2022-10-12: The REAL Possibility of Mapping Alien Planets!

  • 00:33: ... Webb Space Telescope is helping - it can   detect different molecules in the atmospheres of exoplanets a bit larger than the Earth. ...

2022-09-28: Why Is 1/137 One of the Greatest Unsolved Problems In Physics?

  • 08:16: A smaller value would mean electrons were less tightly bound, making atoms and molecules less stable.

2022-09-21: Science of the James Webb Telescope Explained!

  • 13:19: This constant exchange process keeps the nucleons bound together, analogously to how the atoms in molecules are bound by the exchange of electrons.

2022-08-03: What Happens Inside a Proton?

  • 00:45: ... the information in the wavefunction of a single large   molecule. We also talked about the hack that lets us do it anyway - density ...

2022-07-27: How Many States Of Matter Are There?

  • 00:31: ... liquids, there's gases - different states that the same element or molecule could occupy based on the strength of their chemical ...
  • 03:20: ... single water molecule doesn’t really have a temperature, it has a velocity - but the average ...
  • 03:57: ... property of that state of matter; one not possessed by the component H20 molecules. ...
  • 09:19: If that’s true for the subatomic states within the atomic states, what about states formed by components larger than atoms and molecules?

2022-06-22: Is Interstellar Travel Impossible?

  • 03:43: This stuff may be sparse, but at relativistic speeds every molecule becomes a tiny bullet.
  • 06:34: The dust consists of silicate and carbonaceous molecules that have clumped together into grains.
  • 06:50: These elements find each other and form molecules, and the molecules then clump together into grains.
  • 07:50: ... that’s the speed of impact with every air molecule, and so a lot of kinetic energy gets dumped into the falling object, ...
  • 08:46: At these speeds, every single impacting atom or molecule can cause damage.

2022-03-08: Is the Proxima System Our Best Hope For Another Earth?

  • 03:22: ... in its spectrum resulting from electron transitions in the atoms and molecules of the star’s ...
  • 13:19: ... diameter, which should be sensitive enough to detect emission lines from molecules in Proxima B’s atmosphere, if it has one, or even the light reflected ...

2022-01-12: How To Simulate The Universe With DFT

  • 00:15: It would be at best a large molecule.
  • 09:01: ... theory, and here’s resonant excitation in the many electrons of a molecule ...
  • 12:51: ... the intricate quantum-level behavior of chemical reactions, of complex molecules even as far as DNA or that viral capsid from earlier, and many advanced ...

2021-11-17: Are Black Holes Actually Fuzzballs?

  • 02:27: But these few numbers emerge from the motion of every air molecule — and to describe that we’d need the positions and momenta of 10^27ish particles.
  • 07:04: The infinitesimal strings and branes of string theory might be the analog of the molecules that store the entropy of our room full of air.

2021-09-21: How Electron Spin Makes Matter Possible

  • 02:14: No nice things like solids or molecules.

2021-08-18: How Vacuum Decay Would Destroy The Universe

  • 08:08: ... heat of boiling water is released  into the kinetic energy of gas molecules. ...

2021-08-10: How to Communicate Across the Quantum Multiverse

  • 00:23: ... that sound is nothing but an expanding series of density waves - air molecules mindlessly bumping and shoving each other, oblivious to the complex wave ...

2021-06-23: How Quantum Entanglement Creates Entropy

  • 01:02: ... a measure of the average energy of motion of all the individual air molecules. But a single   air molecule doesn’t have a temperature - at ...
  • 02:13: ... type of entropy that applies to quantum systems like our air molecule - it’s von Neumann entropy,   and understanding it may help us ...

2020-12-22: Navigating with Quantum Entanglement

  • 05:38: ... Klaus Schulten was studying “radical pairs.” A radical is any atom or molecule with a lone electron in an outermost or valence ...
  • 06:29: The entangled properties are the quantum spins of the two valence electrons in two separate radical molecules.
  • 08:20: When light hits the protein, it knocks an electron off an attached molecule that goes onto an adjacent molecule.
  • 08:26: The two molecules now share a pair of entangled electrons—they become a radical pair for a short period of time.

2020-12-15: The Supernova At The End of Time

  • 07:10: In regular crystals, atoms or molecules are bonded into a lattice by sharing their electrons.

2020-12-08: Why Do You Remember The Past But Not The Future?

  • 06:02: ... in many different ways - first subatomic particles joining, then molecules forming, then grains growing and ...
  • 06:45: ... until we’re left with a smooth rock that falls apart into grains then molecules then a subatomic ...

2020-11-11: Can Free Will be Saved in a Deterministic Universe?

  • 07:43: ... measure all the states of a brain, of neurons, their activity, the molecules involved and their signaling, et ...
  • 08:01: Forget the brain, that's true even for a box full or air molecules.

2020-10-05: Venus May Have Life!

  • 02:11: Various sulphur-bearing molecules were out of the expected equilibrium quantities.
  • 05:35: Well, let’s first discuss why the presence of a simple molecule might get people excited about the possibility of life.
  • 05:41: So phosphine is a tetrahedtron - pyramid or d-4 - shaped molecule with one phosphorus and 3 hydrogen atoms.
  • 06:05: That means anywhere that the more stable phosphorus and hydrogen-containing molecules might be broken apart.

2020-09-21: Could Life Evolve Inside Stars?

  • 05:12: Again, straight forward - any given chain of molecules holds information, but it isn’t much good if it falls apart before it reproduces itself.

2020-05-11: How Luminiferous Aether Led to Relativity

  • 03:25: ... the segments themselves just oscillate in place. In sound waves, air molecules oscillate back and forth to propagate a pattern in the density of the ...

2020-02-18: Does Consciousness Influence Quantum Mechanics?

  • 04:17: ... that information travels via photons to light-sensitive molecules in our retinas, which initiate electrical signals to our visual cortex, ...

2019-12-17: Do Black Holes Create New Universes?

  • 06:37: ... elements and molecules allow clouds to cool and stars to form much more quickly, and of these, ...
  • 11:13: ... carbon and oxygen are good for both black hole production and organic molecules ... but what if it was, I dunno, beryllium and boron that helped stars ...

2019-11-11: Does Life Need a Multiverse to Exist?

  • 04:18: ... interactions give us different states of matter and a vast family of molecules, which in turn are capable of forming structures of incredible complexity ...

2019-09-16: Could We Terraform Mars?

  • 04:41: They focus on CO2 because it’s the only plausible greenhouse molecule in any significant abundance on Mars.
  • 11:03: At any rate, to get a true Earth-like atmosphere we need a non-toxic filler molecule.
  • 11:27: ... contain tons of frozen volatiles – gas-forming molecules like CO2, H20 and the presence of molecular nitrogen in comets was only ...

2019-04-03: The Edge of an Infinite Universe

  • 17:58: ... normally, so there would be some minutes to hours of bad times as our molecules start to betray ...

2018-12-20: Why String Theory is Wrong

  • 16:28: ... infinity years bad luck William wonders whether the helix of the DNA molecule would be reverse in a mirror universe well I think the answer is both ...

2018-12-12: Quantum Physics in a Mirror Universe

  • 00:02: ... have left-to-right chirality so does spinning flying balls so do many molecules and some quantum particles but chirality in quantum mechanics means ...

2018-08-30: Is There Life on Mars?

  • 11:01: The second paper was about organic molecules found in mudstones on the Martian surface.
  • 11:12: We find small organic molecules in lots of places that life has never touched.
  • 11:17: ... the scientists think that these Martian molecules originated from large organic molecules called kerogens, which are often ...

2018-08-15: Quantum Theory's Most Incredible Prediction

  • 01:13: ... us the electromagnetic force, which binds electrons to atoms, atoms to molecules, and therefore, you know, allows you to ...

2018-07-25: Reversing Entropy with Maxwell's Demon

  • 05:20: The wall has a tiny door large enough for a single molecule to pass through.

2018-07-18: The Misunderstood Nature of Entropy

  • 06:22: ... a room full of 10 to the power of 26 molecules of air, the chance of getting all of the molecules on one side of the ...

2018-04-11: The Physics of Life (ft. It's Okay to be Smart & PBS Eons!)

  • 05:15: We think it started with a self-replicating molecule similar to RNA.
  • 06:39: ... of that energy gets distributed into chemical bonds as simple molecules form via every chemical reaction that's possible given the available raw ...
  • 06:50: As those molecules form, new channels open up for distributing energy into the chemical bonds of increasingly complex molecules.
  • 06:58: ... thermal equilibrium, energy is perfectly evenly distributed and new molecules break apart exactly as often as they're ...
  • 07:31: Molecules self-catalyze.
  • 07:37: Molecules better at that process become more abundant, and at some point, they become true self-replicators and eventually, they become life.
  • 08:48: ... demonstrated mathematically that self-replicating molecules and simple single-cell life are extremely good at shedding heat in the ...

2018-02-14: What is Energy?

  • 05:52: For example, the molecules causing air resistance are just tiny particles.

2018-01-24: The End of the Habitable Zone

  • 06:44: ... atmospheric water vapor increases H2O molecules in the stratosphere will be broken into hydrogen and oxygen and the ...

2017-12-20: Extinction by Gamma-Ray Burst

  • 04:05: ... rays break apart nitrogen and oxygen molecules in the atmosphere, which then recombine into various oxides of nitrogen. ...
  • 04:14: Nitric oxide catalyzes the destruction of ozone molecules, depleting the ozone layer that protects us from solar UV.
  • 04:28: These dangerous molecules can remain in the atmosphere for a few years.
  • 09:37: Perhaps we'll be able to rebuild the ozone layer and clean the bad molecules from the sky.

2017-11-22: Suicide Space Robots

  • 05:10: ... found the presence of sand, ammonia, and organic molecules in the spray of these geysers, which tells us that they are powered by ...

2017-10-19: The Nature of Nothing

  • 00:24: An empty jar still contains something-- molecules of air and a bath of infrared light from its warm environment.
  • 00:38: But what if we suck out every last molecule of air, chill the jar to absolute zero, and shield it from all external radiation?

2017-08-24: First Detection of Life

  • 01:47: ... near-infrared spectrometer you can see these deep dips that result from molecules in Earth's atmosphere absorbing specific wavelengths of light from what ...
  • 02:02: Those dips, absorption features, are undeniable signatures of certain molecules.
  • 02:31: While some of these molecules are known to arise from life on Earth, their presence isn't enough to confirm life on another planet.
  • 02:56: It's definitely not enough to find molecules associated with life-- like water, carbon dioxide, or methane.
  • 03:32: Given how quickly methane oxidizes into water and carbon dioxide, there should barely be a single methane molecule in an oxygen-rich atmosphere.
  • 04:58: There is one molecule that we want to find in high abundance regardless of alien chemistry or even equilibrium values-- we want to find liquid water.

2017-08-16: Extraterrestrial Superstorms

  • 05:56: ... cycle, there's no danger of a Jovian storm system running out of molecules to ...
  • 06:39: A combination of a near inexhaustible supply of heat and an abundant supply of condensable molecules helps.

2017-05-31: The Fate of the First Stars

  • 06:29: Those electrons then lose that energy by emitting light at specific wavelengths-- signature photons that are different for every element or molecule.

2017-05-03: Are We Living in an Ancestor Simulation? ft. Neil deGrasse Tyson

  • 01:22: And so they program in enough detail to completely simulate every molecule in this universe.
  • 13:34: However, the particle might also hit a molecule.
  • 13:37: In that case, it would damage or destroy that molecule.
  • 13:40: This is a problem if that molecule happens to be your DNA.
  • 14:09: ... due to massive complexity, say, in a room full of 10 to the power of 28 molecules. ...

2017-04-26: Are You a Boltzmann Brain?

  • 02:32: The air molecules are moving randomly, and over time they pass through all possible arrangements that they could have.
  • 02:54: ... in a tiny fraction of those possible distributions, all of the air molecules end up randomly bunched together in one corner or, I don't know, produce ...

2017-04-19: The Oh My God Particle

  • 02:02: ... with height above the ground, because the radiation loses energy to air molecules. ...
  • 03:31: Higher energy cosmic rays tend to obliterate themselves several kilometers above the ground in massive collisions with nuclei of air molecules.

2016-10-26: The Many Worlds of the Quantum Multiverse

  • 01:09: But to summarize, a stream of photons or electrons, or even molecules, travels from some point to a detector screen via pair of slits.

2016-10-12: Black Holes from the Dawn of Time

  • 12:16: ... being an excellent solvent, which is critical for moving molecules around to interact with each other, water is also a dipole, meaning it ...

2016-09-29: Life on Europa?

  • 05:37: However, if life is abundant enough there, then it'll have left its mark on the rest of the ocean-- molecules, isotopic ratios.
  • 05:45: Even preferential handedness-- chirality-- of certain molecules can give away the presence of biological processes.
  • 09:06: ... be possible to see the absorption of Jupiter's light, due to specific molecules in those water plumes-- molecules that tell us even more about the ...

2016-09-21: Quantum Entanglement and the Great Bohr-Einstein Debate

  • 13:18: All life on earth pretty clearly descended from the one self-replicating molecule type.

2016-07-27: The Quantum Experiment that Broke Reality

  • 04:56: This crazy effect has even been observed with whole atoms, even whole molecules.
  • 05:02: ... buckyballs, are gigantic spherical molecules of 60 carbon atoms and have been observed to produce double-slit ...

2016-04-06: We Are Star Stuff

  • 01:04: ... those elementary particles start interacting to form nuclei, atoms, and molecules-- chemistry-- they result in levels of complexity that are soon beyond our ...

2015-11-18: 5 Ways to Stop a Killer Asteroid

  • 09:45: ... everything we've seen in this universe, the arrangement of atoms into molecules and molecular structures, via chemical bonds, seems to be the process ...

2015-11-05: Why Haven't We Found Alien Life?

  • 02:51: ... intelligent life as one, assembly of self replicating RNA from organic molecules; two, RNA based proto-cells; three, DNA and the first actual cell-- this ...

2015-05-27: Habitable Exoplanets Debunked!

  • 04:05: Since different atoms and molecules emit or absorb particular wavelengths of light only, the spectrum tells you a lot about atmospheric composition.

2015-05-20: The Real Meaning of E=mc²

  • 06:20: The same is true for molecules.
  • 06:22: ... oxygen molecule weighs less than two oxygen atoms because the combined kinetic and ...

2015-05-13: 9 NASA Technologies Shaping YOUR Future

  • 02:06: Think about it-- algae eat waste, make oxygen, and some can even make nutritional molecules.
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