
20180725: Reversing Entropy with Maxwell's Demon
 01:31: ... defined by the number of possible configurations of particles or microstates in physicsspeak that could produce the same observed set of ...
 02:29: ... are around 10 to the power of 108 possible microstates that give you this smoothly distributed macrostate, and you'd need close ...
 02:52: There are only a few configurations that look like this, which means knowing the macrostate almost tells you the exact microstate.
 04:26: ... average thermodynamic properties are the same everywhere, are just weird microstates among the many microstates of a very high entropy ...
 09:26: ... entropy of the universe must increase, and yet knowing the microstate of a system, no matter how thermodynamically mixed, allows you to ...
 11:49: ... out there, the ergodic hypothesis is basically the assumption that all microstates are equally probable over long periods of ...
 12:13: If different microstates can have different probabilities, then you need to include those probabilities in your equation for entropy.
 13:08: Zombie Blood would like us to walk through the math used in calculating the number of possible microstates on the Go board.


20180718: The Misunderstood Nature of Entropy
 04:29: We call this the microstate.
 04:45: For a given macrostate, all microstates consistent with its thermodynamic properties are equally likely.
 04:52: ... some macrostates, there are lots of different microstates or arrangements of particles that lead to roughly the same thermodynamic ...
 05:06: ... a system to do its own thing, it'll eventually try out all possible microstates that are possible given the laws of ...
 05:18: So if you look at the system at some random point in time, it'll be in a completely random microstate chosen from all possible microstates.
 05:29: Well, probably the one that's consistent with the most microstates.
 05:41: Every possible specific arrangement is considered a microstate, while the overall shape of the distribution would be the macrostate.
 05:59: Some microstates are weird though, and they give different macrostates because they're different average distributions.
 06:09: That microstate is a factor of 2 times 10 to the power of 107 less likely than one of the many smoothly mixed microstates.
 06:49: And instead of particles being distributed through position space, a microstate is really defined by how energy is distributed through phase space.
 07:47: ... equation tells us that entropy is the logarithm of the number of microstates consistent with the current macrostate times the Boltzmann ...
 08:04: ... the way, there are certain special microstates, special arrangements of particles that look highly ordered but are still ...
 08:49: So the macrostate that defines thermodynamic equilibrium is, by definition, the one with the most microstates, which also means the maximum entropy.
 08:59: ... increase in entropy, simply because at any future time, it's current microstate will most likely be one of the more common types of ...
 09:12: ... each Go stone and place it on a particular spot to construct a special microstate or to use a vacuum pump and a glass wall to move all of the air to one ...
 09:24: In both cases, you are reducing the number of accessible microstates which, by definition, must reduce entropy.
 10:45: ... future, but for now, please be careful to keep your number of accessible microstates low, avoid thermal equilibrium, and keep being that brilliant macrostate ...
