
20221109: What If Humanity Is Among The First Spacefaring Civilizations?
 06:37: ... the hard steps model lets us write down a mathematical function for the appearance rate of life that depends on a simple ...
 18:50: ... it turns out that the mathematical description implied by this interpretation is equivalent to standard ...


20221026: Why Did Quantum Entanglement Win the Nobel Prize in Physics?
 03:07: Quantum systems are described by a mathematical object called the wavefunction, which evolves according to the Schrodinger equation.
 17:55: ... laid out in full, even though you couldn’t necessarily follow the math. ...
 18:57: ...  but more likely that’s just an artifact of extending the math too ...


20220928: Why Is 1/137 One of the Greatest Unsolved Problems In Physics?
 13:15: ... be that the fine structure constant is not a physical constant, but a mathematical one, like pi, but perhaps we haven't realized this is the case because ...


20220921: Science of the James Webb Telescope Explained!
 14:45: ... testable prediciton, people are starting to take the prodigious math developed for the theory and apply it to other places  including back ...
 17:43: Just ask a mathematician.


20220824: What Makes The Strong Force Strong?
 10:28: ... mathematics used to describe this system just happen to be the same as the ...
 13:56: ... combinations are neutral, like black and white for example, you get this mathematical ...


20220817: What If Dark Energy is a New Quantum Field?
 01:41: ... of dark energy accelerates expansion requires a dive into the hairy math of general relativity  and we tried that in a couple of previous ...


20220803: What Happens Inside a Proton?
 00:22: ... universe operates. It helps that a lot of those rules seem to be mathematical. By writing down the laws of physics as equations, we can make ...


20220720: What If We Live in a Superdeterministic Universe?
 06:36: ... derived a mathematical statement  the Bell inequality that is true in the case that the ...


20220630: Could We Decode Alien Physics?
 07:38: ... will be pointing in the direction of the force. ￼ Mathematically we calculate the force using something called the cross product. ...
 15:41: ... occurred to? One of the greatest savants of 20th century math and physics, John von Neumann. He came up with the ...


20220615: Can Wormholes Solve The Black Hole Information Paradox?
 07:24: ... tidal wave of math in these papers pulls ideas from string theory, ...
 10:06: ... computing the von Neumann entropy, there is a neat mathematical trick you can do. For some reason, it turns out that it's ...
 11:25: ... you’d expect their effect to disappear, but amazingly, the math stays different. The mere possibility of a wormhole ...
 12:40: ... any idea. More work is needed to translate this crazy math into a physical picture  if that’s even possible. But the ...
 13:07: ... really been solved? Well the community is divided. Some of the mathematical tricks that were used have invited skepticism. Regardless, these ...


20220601: What If Physics IS NOT Describing Reality?
 00:25: ... is physics really trying to do? Is it to find the mathematical laws that govern the universe? Not quite  no one has to ...
 11:24: ... one thing to use quantum information theory as a mathematical tool, but quite another to claim that information is somehow ...


20220525: The Evolution of the Modern Milky Way Galaxy
 18:41: ... The answer is kind of, yes. You can interpret the math that way. There is a valid interpretation of general ...


20220504: Space DOES NOT Expand Everywhere
 03:48: ... just for laughs let’s look at the math. This is the FLRW metric  it’s basically Pythagorus for 4D spacetime  ...


20220427: How the Higgs Mechanism Give Things Mass
 07:46: Easy stuff, right? In that case you won’t mind seeing the math.


20220330: Could The Universe Be Inside A Black Hole?
 00:28: Both of these involve matter being packed to infinite densities  they are singularities where the mathematics of GR breaks down.
 00:41: ... have mathematical similarities to ech other that have led some physicists to believe that ...
 05:50: We’ll need to make the black hole interior mathematically indistinguishable from a universe for somebody inside that black hole.
 08:15: ... very first “realistic” mathematical description of a black hole formation was discovered in 1939 by Robert ...


20220323: Where Is The Center of The Universe?
 03:22: ... Friedman  he ignored all those little gravitational bumps  doing the mathematical equivalent of grinding up everything into the universe into a fine paste ...
 06:34: ... the radial dimension of this expanding hypersphere is represented in the math by the scale factor  and the scale factor increases as time ...
 10:03: The math of the FLWR metric and the Friedman equations tell us that as time approaches zero, the distance between any two points approaches zero.
 10:23: Well the size of the universe at t=0 is zero times infinity … which is neither zero nor infinity  it’s the point where the math breaks.
 10:34: And that’s the nature of singularities  they are discontinuities in the math we use to describe the universe.


20220316: What If Charge is NOT Fundamental?
 00:37: The math that describes it  Maxwell's equations or quantum electrodynamics  seem to wrap it up nicely.
 02:49: ... by a property analogous to spin, governed by analogous mathematics. ...
 05:13: ... the same way that isospin followed the same mathematics as regular quantum spin, this new property seemed to obey the math for ...
 07:27: He recognized that these patterns were actually representations of a mathematical symmetry known as SU(3).
 08:12: So after all this hard thinking it turns out that isospin and hypercharge were as much mathematical abstractions as was electric charge.


20220216: Is The Wave Function The Building Block of Reality?
 05:44: ... is a nonlinear process and it’s nonreversible. It’s not part of the math of the Schrodinger ...


20220210: The Nature of Space and Time AMA
 00:03: ... actually pursuing here so i guess we have a spectacularly successful mathematical description of both space and time okay we start in this description ...


20220127: How Does Gravity Escape A Black Hole?
 15:19: This is a case of me blithely repeating something I heard once without checking the math.
 15:27: We check a lot of math on this show, but I guess sometimes something sneaks through.


20220112: How To Simulate The Universe With DFT
 01:12: But for almost every practical use you’d need to do that math for multiple quantum particles interacting  and then the blackboard doesn’t cut it.


20211220: What Happens If A Black Hole Hits Earth?
 18:51: ... onto the comments to say hi. If you want your mind blown by the best mathinspired computer graphics, including various manydimensional geometries, I ...


20211210: 2021 End of Year AMA!
 00:02: ... to understand that virtual particles are not real uh rather they're a mathematical tool that's used to represent the behavior of the quantum field um ...


20211117: Are Black Holes Actually Fuzzballs?
 07:40: ... year after the StromingerVafa result, Samir Mathur at Ohio State dug into that model to see if it could reproduce ...
 08:45: ... while he was exploring stringy black holes, Samir Mathur found that the strings that formed the black hole would increase in size ...


20211102: Is ACTION The Most Fundamental Property in Physics?
 15:58: ... useful. All great discoveries came from perspective shifts. But there is math behind it also, which I understand is based on set theory and ergodic ...
 16:26: ... of the math  Corbin Simpson and Skooks say that constructor theory sounds like ...
 17:54: ... quantum etc.) then constructor theory gives us insights as to what math is possible, and what math should be restricting our ...
 18:13: ... error  we come at in from the other direction and ask what subrealm of mathspace we should be looking at given what we know with certainty is possible ...


20211020: Will Constructor Theory REWRITE Physics?
 02:25: In the mechanistic approach the fundamentals are the mathematical descriptions of how a process occurs.
 07:21: ... we carve off all the “can’ts” from the marble block of all possible mathematics. ...


20211005: Why Magnetic Monopoles SHOULD Exist
 02:22: The nonexistence of magnetic monopoles is codified in the mathematics of electrodynamics.
 02:37: The divergence is just this mathy term for the amount that a field points inward toward a sink or outward toward a source.
 03:54: ... said that "Everything not forbidden is compulsory." meaning that if the math of our physical theory allows it, then it exists in ...
 05:37: The great Paul Dirac had a habit of discovering particles just by staring at the math.
 07:56: ... is fundamentally unobservable, and Dirac argued that this makes it a mathematical figment, kind of like virtual ...
 16:00: ... in it, although as far as I know noone has actually disputed the math. ...


20210921: How Electron Spin Makes Matter Possible
 05:59: ... they actually cancel each other out and you effectively have no photons. Mathematically, a halfcycle phase shift corresponds to putting a negative sign in front ...
 07:22: ... and the Pauli exclusion principle. Now all we need is to do is the math. ...


20210810: How to Communicate Across the Quantum Multiverse
 02:29: ... are other ways to interpret the math of quantum mechanics that don’t require a multiverse. For example ...
 02:56: ... is exactly that  it’s a story about what's really happening behind the math  what “physical” mechanisms give rise to the equations of quantum ...
 08:55: ... in exactly 11 lines of math, Polchinski shows that this conspiracy is delicate. Almost ANY deviation ...
 12:00: ... real math is quite a bit more complicated, but I've given you a sense of it. In ...


20210707: Electrons DO NOT Spin
 07:30: ... of electrons. The wavefunction became a very strange mathematical object called a spinor, which had been invented just a decade ...


20210623: How Quantum Entanglement Creates Entropy
 04:50: ... his invention “entropy” after talking to the great Hungarian mathematician and physicist John von Neumann. Supposedly, Von Neumann said ...


20210616: Can Space Be Infinitely Divided?
 01:16: ... by thinking about hot pokers. He found the longsought mathematical description of blackbody, or thermal radiation  by ...
 03:47: ... uncertainty principle. Bare with me though with just a touch of mathematics. ...
 06:39: ... one last dip into the math to see how big this uncertainty is. Space is stretched ...


20210525: What If (Tiny) Black Holes Are Everywhere?
 00:41: At least, that’s the black hole as it appears in the mathematics of Einstein’s general theory of relativity.
 04:26: ... Hawking made that assumption, it enabled him to mathematically connect the highgravity region near the black hole with a very distant ...
 11:04: Now feel free to do the math yourself and tell me I’m wrong.


20210323: Zeno's Paradox & The Quantum Zeno Effect
 00:45: Nowadays, most physicists and mathematicians don’t really see Zeno’s arrow as paradoxical.
 01:07: That’s what a mathematician might tell you  but quantum mechanics also has a thing or two to say about extremely tiny distances and time intervals.
 12:45: ... to a library of lectures about anything that interests you...science, math, history, literature, or even how to cook, play chess, or become a better ...


20210316: The NEW Crisis in Cosmology
 13:38: ... through time at the speed of light its just one way to interpret the math of special relativity. In relativity, there's this ...
 14:47: ... it. But if you want a much better description of the math, check out Sabine Hossenfelder's episode on this  link in the ...


20210224: Does Time Cause Gravity?
 05:15: There's a certain way of interpreting the math of relativity that says that everything travels at the speed of light.


20210210: How Does Gravity Warp the Flow of Time?
 11:29: ... is closer to reality  they are, in a sense, just our way to map the math to our ...


20210126: Is Dark Matter Made of Particles?
 06:25: The other delves deep into theory  in speculative mathematics beyond the standard model for signs of new particles.
 07:25: This is a weird little particle that popped up in the math when physicists were trying to solve another mystery of physics  the socalled CP problem.


20210119: Can We Break the Universe?
 14:28: ... the more we realize that the stories we tell to make sense of the math are just models to help our intuition, and that strikingly ...


20201215: The Supernova At The End of Time
 13:09: In the comments, Kevin Mathewson put it very succinctly, so I'm just going to read Kevin's comment.


20201104: Electroweak Theory and the Origin of the Fundamental Forces
 00:20: And how do the forces of nature arise from mathematical symmetries in the first place?


20201027: How The Penrose Singularity Theorem Predicts The End of Space Time
 02:16: ... towards each other on a perfect collision course, the math has to land them all in the ...
 04:06: ... what did Penrose discover? How did he manage to peer into the mathematical heart of the black hole? And why did this deserve a Nobel ...


20200928: Solving Quantum Cryptography
 00:00: ... and your old fanfictionheavy livejournal are both one tiny math problem away from becoming public ...
 00:10: ... math problem is prime number factoring, and the new era of quantum computers ...
 01:08: ... in 1994, a mathematician named Peter Shor developed an algorithm  Shor’s algorithm  that could ...
 03:17: That’s a mathematical operation that’s very easy to figure out in one direction, but very difficult to reverse.
 04:40: ... similar to one that was developed over 2,000 years ago by the Greek mathematician ...
 06:02: ... 18th century mathematician Leonhard Euler figured this structure extends to numbers that are the ...
 09:30: ... gets its name from cryptographer Robert McEliece, who developed the hard math problem back in the ...
 13:51: Mathematicians and cryptographers have decades of security to point to as proof of their encrypting and decrypting abilities.


20200921: Could Life Evolve Inside Stars?
 12:00: Many of you mentioned Sabine Hossenfelder, whose book Lost in the Math was a big part of highlighting this issue of excessive dependence on beauty.
 12:21: ... see a real problem with the excessive weight placed on the importance of mathematical beauty, by some, perhaps by many, in the theoryofeverything ...
 12:50: ... of the likes of Einstein and Dirac that physical law should be mathematically ...
 13:02: So we should try to learn from the past successes of this pursuit of beauty in math, as well as its failures.


20200908: The Truth About Beauty in Physics
 00:20: ... don’t need to choose between beauty and truth  there’s this idea that mathematical beauty is a powerful guiding force towards truth  the more beautiful ...
 00:57: ...  and misguided by this abstract notion of beauty in trying to guess the mathematical behavior of the ...
 01:49: It turns out both Ptolemy and Copernicus were lured by the same bias towards beauty  here, the mathematical perfection of the circle.
 03:13: Ptolemy, Copernicus, Kepler, Newton, Einstein  each followed their own sense of mathematical beauty in this long quest to understand gravity.
 03:33: To understand that, we need to think about what mathematical beauty even means.
 03:44: But let’s think about some of the ways in which math can be considered beautiful.
 03:48: ... Ptolemy and Copernicus it was a sense that certain mathematical forms are intrinsically more beautiful or perfect than others  in their ...
 04:47: ... a compact expression  a small number of physical properties linked in a mathematically simple ...
 05:20: ... can describe any complex phenomenon with a mathematical model if you’re willing to give your model enough moving parts  but ...
 06:15: So is base reality represented by the simplest possible interaction or relationship, expressible with the simplest conceivable mathematical statement?
 06:26: And if so, does pursuing mathematical parsimony guide us inexorably towards the most elementary driving forces?
 07:38: But if a physical law is mathematically ugly, then you can be sure it’s wrong, experiment or no.
 07:44: Dirac’s most famous result came from exactly this pursuit of mathematical beauty.
 08:45: ... pursuit of pure mathematical elegance led him to predict the existence of antimatter, which was ...
 08:58: Nobel laureate physicist Frank Wilcek talks about a form of mathematical beauty that he calls the exuberance of a theory  its productivity.
 11:01: This seemed too mathematically neat to be a coincidence.
 11:05: String theorists find their math beautiful, even if it is far from being simple.
 11:54: ... perhaps mathematical beauty and convergence DOES provide a reliable indicator that we’re ...
 12:11: And so perhaps the mathematical wonders of string theory DO reflect something true about reality, but we’re struggling with how to interpret it all.


20200810: Theory of Everything Controversies: Livestream
 00:00: ... eric weinstein who is a very unique case uh holding a phd in mathematical physics from harvard but did not pursue the traditional academic route ...


20200728: What is a Theory of Everything: Livestream
 00:00: ... of deep learning and he's the author of multiple books including our mathematical universe and the recent book life 3.0 so uh hi everyone thanks for ...


20200622: Building Black Holes in a Lab
 03:26: ... But by 1982 he realized the two situations had much more in common, mathematically speaking. It turns out that the equations of fluid dynamics can be ...
 04:08: ... the years, physicists have capitalized on these kinds of mathematically analogous situations and found a number of systems with event horizons ...


20200615: What Happens After the Universe Ends?
 00:36: Conformal Cyclic Cosmology is a story of the origin and the end of our universe from great mathematical physicist Sir Roger Penrose.
 01:39: A conformal transformation is just some mathematical function that you apply to a geometric space which preserves all of the angles in that space.
 09:20: For the blacktie formal answer we’d need to delve into the math of the conformal equivalence of the beginning and end of time.
 09:28: But we’ll just do it semiformally without the math.
 09:34: ... Roger Penrose is famous for is his Penrose diagrams  these are ways of mathematically transforming our grid of spacetime to fit infinite distance and time ...


20200527: Does Gravity Require Extra Dimensions?
 00:33: ... no surprise that it was the first force to get a decent mathematical description with Isaac Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation back in the ...
 14:16: Now the multiverse through the black hole arises from tracing the paths of spacetime through the black hole mathematically.
 14:24: ... likely to be real than the quantum multiverse  it's almost certainly a mathematical figment, arising from idealized types of black hole that don't really ...
 14:38: On a related note: Polygondwanaland asks how much of this weirdness is actually weirdness and how much is broken math.
 14:48: Well, the universe on the other side of the black hole is probably a figment in the math  which I suppose you can call broken math if you like.
 14:56: But really, the math is just fine  the problem is assigning physical reality after pushing the math too far.
 15:03: After all, the universe may be incredibly well described and modeled by the math, but that doesn't mean the universe is the math.
 15:44: ... like an infinite string of universes or a time machine indicate that the math may have led our physical understanding astray, and that's even more ...


20200518: Mapping the Multiverse
 01:41: A rotating black hole is described mathematically by the Kerr metric.
 08:34: This time travel and naked singularity stuff is good reason to think this part of the mathematical structure of the Kerr black hole is NOT real.
 08:43: We’ll come back to how it can be avoided in the math  for now, let’s whip once around back to our own past and hop back through the ring.
 15:58: Many of you took issue at my bad math.
 16:41: But you were right to be annoyed at my lazy math language.
 16:58: ... we had plenty of the other types of nerdery also  I mentioned the math nerds already, but I was especially excited to see plenty of roleplaying ...


20200511: How Luminiferous Aether Led to Relativity
 02:33: ... the Sun. The Dutch physicist Christiaan Huygens developed a detailed mathematical theory around this idea that gravity results from the fluid dynamics of ...


20200428: Space Time Livestream: Ask Matt Anything
 00:00: ... if not google it but by the way John Conway who who was the great mathematician who cannot with the game of life recently passed away so so ROP to ...


20200324: How Black Holes Spin Space Time
 03:27: ... episode. For a preview check out our episode on time machines. Yup, the math says you can visit your past within a Kerr black hole. For the bit about ...
 07:50: ... the event horizon where space moves downwards faster than light. In the math, that fasterthanlight flow of space is represented in a particularly ...


20200316: How Do Quantum States Manifest In The Classical World?
 15:01: Science, Math, History, Literature, or even how to cook, play chess or become a better photographer.


20200224: How Decoherence Splits The Quantum Multiverse
 01:52: ... quantum systems are described by this wavefunction thing  it’s the mathematical object that defines the distribution of possible outcomes if you were to ...
 13:47: In fact the details have been worked out with mathematical rigor  starting with H. Dieter Zeh’s foundational paper in 1970.


20200218: Does Consciousness Influence Quantum Mechanics?
 00:41: ... in predicting the behavior of quantum system  rules encapsulated in the mathematics of quantum ...
 15:19: So by the mathematical definition, a spatiallyfarying constant would be a field.


20200211: Are Axions Dark Matter?
 00:27: ... is a classic physics tale: intrepid scientists delve deep into trackless mathematics in search of answers to a mystery. And there, against all expectations, ...
 11:03: This all seems like a lot of work for a hypothetical particle predicted from speculative math.
 16:00: ... book  and then lots of people corrected my correction. Principia Mathematica, Prinkipia mathematica, princhipia mathematica  many people swearing by ...


20200127: Hacking the Nature of Reality
 00:43: ... mathematical description should depend only on observable quantities  in this case, ...
 00:54: ... philosophy led to a series of seemingly miraculous mathematical insights, with the final result being the birth of modern quantum theory ...


20200120: Solving the Three Body Problem
 01:49: ... That just means it can be written out with a finite number of mathematical operations and ...
 02:55: ... three body problem became the obsession for many great mathematicians  but over the following three centuries, solutions have been found for ...
 06:43: ... status of the threebody problem inspired generations of physicists and mathematicians to continue to seek exact, analytic solutions. And some succeeded  ...
 07:56: ... masses. The numerical discovery of the figure8 solution was proved mathematically by Alain Chenciner and Richard Montgomery, and insights gained from that ...
 12:00: ... wrong. In 1906, not so long after Poincare stern proclamation, Finnish mathematician Karl Sundman found a solution to the general threebody ...


20200106: How To Detect a Neutrino
 09:42: ... Ash Donal Botkin John R Slavik Mathew Edmund Fokschaner Jordan Young Matthew O'Connor ...


20191209: The Doomsday Argument
 09:37: ... of this notion of reference class that makes this idea seem far less mathematically precise  far more fishy  than the question of picking balls from ...


20191104: Why We Might Be Alone in the Universe
 12:59: Well, crudely, they're a mathematical way to describe the geometry of space  which means they aren't in space, they sort of ARE space.


20191021: Is Time Travel Impossible?
 01:41: Actually, the math does sort of allow that.


20191015: Loop Quantum Gravity Explained
 03:33: ... physics, we have variables like position, time, momentum, energy  mathematical expressions that represent the observable properties of the object or ...
 07:33: Connections are mathematical functions that tell you how something, like a vector, changes as it moves between two points in a space.
 13:31: But the mathematics have yielded intriguing clues to the nature of the fabric of the universe – and that nature is very weird.


20191007: Black Hole Harmonics
 13:31: Honestly, that's the only way to get math  to do it.


20190923: Is Pluto a Planet?
 02:20: This picture was cleaned up by the observations of Galileo and Brahe and the mathematical models of Kepler and Newton.
 02:34: The solar system finally made observational and theoretical sense: there were now 6 planets orbiting the sun in perfect mathematical harmony.
 03:27: ... betrayed the existence of Neptune, which was discovered first in the mathematics and then with a telescope in ...


20190826: How To Become an Astrophysicist + Challenge Question!
 03:35: ... To come to a PhD at their University The first step is to take a ton of mathematics and physics as an undergraduate most estra PhD programs require a good ...
 08:59: ... not to do a PhD are many Don't do it because you think you're okay at math and can't think of anything else to do besides stay in school Don't do ...


20190806: What Caused the Big Bang?
 03:13: We've covered how this works for dark energy in a lot of detail. Check out the playlist if you want to get an insight into the actual math.


20190725: Deciphering The Vast Scale of the Universe
 03:39: ... Cepheid variables, brightened and dimmed with a repeating period that is mathematically related to the stars’ absolute ...


20190718: Did Time Start at the Big Bang?
 00:25: ... our universe is expanding and if we reverse that expansion far enough  mathematically  purely according to Einstein's equations, it seems inevitable that all ...
 08:14: ... of what tells us. It's wrong Any time you encounter a singularity in the mathematics of a physical theory you have good reason for skepticism It's probably ...
 09:52: ... eternally expanding universe Looks like the Big Bang of a new universe Mathematically so our heat death is someone else's Big ...


20190715: The Quantum Internet
 01:21: ... Shannon started it all with his 1948 paper “A Mathematical Theory of Communication”, which quantified the rate of digital ...


20190516: The Cosmic Dark Ages
 13:43: ... need to break the laws of physics  rather than just solve really hard math ...


20190509: Why Quantum Computing Requires Quantum Cryptography
 02:32: It's a mathematical process that can't be undone with the public key  only with its prime factors, which only you have.


20190424: No Dark Matter = Proof of Dark Matter?
 00:03: ... Halliday's brilliant drawing in which the lightsaber blade is the matrix mathematics of the more penrose conditions truly an elegant weapon for a more ...


20190410: The Holographic Universe Explained
 06:59: Our 2D grid behaves like a 3D volume, and we can treat it like one – mathematically.
 12:58: Represent a 2D hyperbolic space as a compactified map and it has an edge – at least a mathematical one.
 13:58: ... question we now wrestle with is this: a series of mathematical clues indicate that our universe may be holographic – or at least have a ...
 14:13: Can these just be crazy mathematical coincidences?
 14:27: An abstract mathematical surface infinitely far from our location and from our intuition, projecting inwards our familiar holographic spacetime.


20190403: The Edge of an Infinite Universe
 00:11: We can define a boundary to an infinite universe, at least mathematically.
 01:50: In fact, if we twist our human intuition and our mathematics to its limit we can build our picket fence around an infinite universe.
 02:00: ... mathematical boundary at infinity turns out to be not just useful for doing ...
 04:38: Physicists found mathematical ways to fuse space and time into new coordinates that suppressed the infinities.
 04:49: The first efforts were designed to allow physicists to cross the event horizon of black holes – mathematically.
 13:03: ... exists only in the compactified coordinates of the interior volume  is mathematically exactly a flat, Minkowski ...
 14:04: ... a 3+1dimensional Minkowski space, that corresponded to an interesting mathematical structure in the enclosed 4+1D AdS ...
 17:01: ... I think at that level this is all just different interpretations of the math. ...


20190328: Could the Universe End by Tearing Apart Every Atom?
 00:25: ... the overall amount of dark energy hence the accelerating expansion mathematically we describe a constant energy density with the cosmological constant in ...
 01:55: ... playlist delving into the mysteries of dark energy we actually used math the Friedmann equations we're not going to go so deep here but we are ...
 08:53: So let's see what this made up math has to say about when the big rip would happen.


20190320: Is Dark Energy Getting Stronger?
 02:13: Mathematically we represent a constant vacuum energy with Einstein’s cosmological constant – or Lambda.


20190313: Will You Travel to Space?
 12:52: ... electronic, country, rock, and more. And this week they have a very mathy episode on the Fibonacci Sequence and Golden Ratio in music and how its ...


20190306: The Impossibility of Perpetual Motion Machines
 01:27: Bhāskara's wheel, named after the Indian mathematician, was embedded with tubes of mercury that would flow from back and forth as the wheel turned.
 04:26: Richard Feynman himself demonstrated this mathematically.


20190220: Secrets of the Cosmic Microwave Background
 02:05: ... Each layer has fluctuations of a certain size defined by the mathematics of spherical harmonics Sort of like sine waves but different wavelengths ...


20190124: The Crisis in Cosmology
 16:34: ...is mathematically the same as a positive mass particle moving forward in time That notion makes sense in the math,...


20190116: Our Antimatter, Mirrored, TimeReversed Universe
 08:43: ... quantum information is conserved in this type of time rehearsal. Mathematically, the particles in a rewinding universe actually look like they underwent ...


20181220: Why String Theory is Wrong
 00:07: There's this idea that beauty is a powerful guide to truth in the mathematics of physical theory.
 00:52: It just couldn't be true, despite the elegance of the math.
 02:43: ... the familiar general relativity in our universe, plus an extra bit of math from the extra special ...
 03:00: Crazily, that math also looked familiar. It looked like Maxwell's equations for electromagnetism.
 07:04: A duality in physics is when two apparently different mathematical theories proved to represent the same physical process.
 08:49: It turns out that mathematically, these two are completely equivalent.
 09:37: The appearance of dualities tells us that we probably can't take our geometric interpretations of the math as seriously as we'd like to.


20181114: Supersymmetric Particle Found?
 14:17: To quote, "I thought one of the fundamental properties of the strings was that the maths only works if they are one dimensional.
 14:47: So yeah, the math of string theory only works for 1D objects because these trace 2D world sheets.


20181107: Why String Theory is Right
 01:36: ... mathematics seem to come together so neatly towards a unified description of all ...
 01:47: I want to try to give you a glimpse into this mathematical elegance.
 02:41: But the fact is when you start to work out the math of string theory, gravity appears like magic.
 04:15: If you even try to describe very strong gravitational interactions, you get nonsense black holes in the math.
 05:39: This stuff appears a little too naturally in the math of string theory to be a coincidence, or so a string theorist might tell you.
 06:46: It was a mathematical mess until Dirac added some nonsense terms to the electronwave function that caused a lot of the mess to cancel out.
 07:10: This is a powerful example of how following mathematical prettiness could bring us closer to the truth.
 07:17: Quantizing the motion of strings also starts out ugly, but there are also some math tricks to make it work.
 07:42: Finding symmetries can massively reduce the complexity of the math.
 10:41: ... means we can smooth out that surface mathematically and write a nice, simple quantum wave equation from the equations of ...
 12:49: ... were lead to string theory by the elegance of the math and the fact that it appeared, at least in the beginning, to converge on ...
 13:10: But can such an elegant and rich mathematical structure really have nothing to do with reality?
 13:17: There's plenty of historical precedent for mathematical beauty leading to truth, but there's no fundamental principle that says it has to.
 13:30: Philosophical points to consider as we continue to follow the mathematical beauty hopefully towards an increasingly true representation of spacetime.
 13:53: ... to get access to a library of different video lectures about science, math, history, literature, or even how to cook, play chess, or become a ...
 14:44: ... many virtual particles, but the particles themselves are just convenient mathematical building blocks to describe a messy disturbance in the ...


20181031: Are Virtual Particles A New Layer of Reality?
 00:53: Sometimes our mathematical hacks point to strange new aspects of reality.
 01:05: The quantization part of his math trick was meant to disappear in the final form of the equation, but it remained.
 01:15: That math hack turned out to represent the very real quantum nature of the photon.
 01:26: A more recent mathematical hack is the virtual particle.
 03:00: It's our mathematical hack.
 04:25: Instead, virtual particles are the mathematical building blocks we use to approximate the complex states of interacting fields.
 05:45: Virtual particles are our mathematical representation of the quantum mechanical behavior of fields, and that behavior is weird.
 10:12: In the math of QFT, the perfect vacuum is a steady state.
 11:28: In his actual mathematical derivation, he instead talks about vibrational modes of the quantum vacuum being cut off by the event horizon.
 12:00: So to recap, virtual particles are best thought of as a mathematical device to represent the behavior of quantum fields.
 12:18: ... Planck discovery of the quantum nature of photons, it turned out that a mathematical artifact represented new real physics the quantum nature of the photon ...
 13:13: Ergo, virtual particles are probably just a mathematical artifact.
 13:17: There is no good reason to believe that virtual particles exist outside the math we use to approximate the behavior of quantum fields.


20181018: What are the Strings in String Theory?
 00:51: Its equations predict many things with stunning accuracy, but they first required us to tune many mathematical knobs and dials.
 03:45: What if the math of this theory could be used in a theory of quantum gravity?
 09:37: Its interactions are smeared around that string, handily avoiding the explosion of mathematical infinities you get below the Planck length.


20180920: Quantum Gravity and the Hardest Problem in Physics
 02:32: Our experience of the universe appears to be plucked from this landscape of possibilities in strange, but mathematically predictable, ways.
 02:41: That math started with the Schrodinger equation, which tracks these probability waves through space and time.
 08:19: But in the resulting math, the new quantum fields still lie on top of a smooth, continuous grid of space and time.


20180823: How Will the Universe End?
 16:20: ... says that sometimes it feels like we're trying to fit maths randomly to the observations when we come up with stuff like virtual ...


20180815: Quantum Theory's Most Incredible Prediction
 00:17: [MUSIC PLAYING] Quantum field theory is notoriously complicated, built from mindbendingly abstract mathematics.
 07:36: In the case of electromagnetism, those interactions are mediated by virtual photons, which are just a mathematical way to describe quantum buzz.
 12:53: ... to get access to a library of different video lectures about science, math, history, literature, or even how to cook, play chess or become a ...


20180725: Reversing Entropy with Maxwell's Demon
 13:08: Zombie Blood would like us to walk through the math used in calculating the number of possible microstates on the Go board.


20180718: The Misunderstood Nature of Entropy
 11:26: Honestly, that's the only way to get math, to do it.
 11:43: Brilliant, Math and Science Done Right, is proud to support "Space Time." To learn more about Brilliant, go to brilliant.org/spacetime.


20180711: Quantum Invariance & The Origin of The Standard Model
 00:28: As far as we can tell, mathematics is the language in which the universe is written.
 01:14: ... simple terms, a gauge theory is one that has mathematical parameters or degrees of freedom that can be changed without affecting ...
 02:35: ... describes the evolution of the wave function, which is the mathematical object that contains all the information about a particular physical ...
 03:07: Pay attention to this bit of math.
 03:48: It's literally complex in the mathematical sense.
 06:57: ... turns out that we can add a mathematical term to the momentum operator that's specially designed to undo any mess ...
 07:17: ... right now, but the important and absolutely bizarre thing about this mathematical entity is that it looks like something very ...
 10:29: ... fundamental forces, perhaps it's the fact that by pure exploration of mathematics, delving many layers of abstraction deeper than our capacity for ...
 10:49: And following those mathematical labyrinths reveals physical theory with stunning predictive power, like the standard model of particle physics.
 10:58: Mathematics truly seems to be the language in which the universe is written.


20180627: How Asteroid Mining Will Save Earth
 11:00: And to help you understand the universe, I recommend "Our Mathematical Universe" by Max Tegmark.
 11:05: In it, Professor Tegmark explores an incredible idea that perhaps our reality is mathematical at its most fundamental level.


20180620: The Black Hole Information Paradox
 11:54: They were glimpsed as dark stars in the mathematics of Isaac Newton's law of universal gravitation.
 12:01: So, to continue your own mathematical journey into black holes, Newton's gravity is the place to start.
 12:36: Brilliant, math and science done right, is proud to support "Space Time".
 13:29: In the mathematics, it looks as though anything falling into a charged black hole is ejected into a separate universe.
 14:11: Virtual particles in general are just a way to mathematically account for the infinite ways a quantum field can communicate its influence.


20180613: What Survives Inside A Black Hole?
 00:55: Don't get me wrong, the math is complicated, but the objects themselves are simple.
 11:21: ... to get access to a library of different video lectures about science, math, history, literature, or even how to cook, play chess, or become a ...


20180523: Why Quantum Information is Never Destroyed
 00:32: They are mathematical rules that dictate how systems evolve in time.
 07:05: ... is not straightforward to explain without getting into some hairy math, but the upshot is that quantum states must remain independent of each ...
 12:49: ... most of the solution but had put it by the wayside for more important mathematics. ...
 13:07: In true mathematical fashion, her work was far more general than anything we deal with in physics.
 13:17: It's hard to understate just how amazing of a mathematician she was.


20180516: Noether's Theorem and The Symmetries of Reality
 01:34: But the failure of energy conservation was still clear from the math of general relativity.
 01:40: Two of the greats of the era, David Hilbert and Felix Klein, sought the help of a young mathematician Emmy Noether to understand this seeming paradox.
 05:56: Despite its profound implications, the math behind Noether's theorem is surprisingly straightforward.
 08:42: Emmy Noether was one of the greatest mathematicians of the golden age of modern physics.
 08:46: Yet, she gained little public recognition in her time and is still only known to the more eager students of math and physics.
 09:01: ... Weyl, also a giant in the mathematical foundation of quantum mechanics, said in her memorial address, I was ...
 09:21: Her contributions to mathematics, particularly abstract algebra, redefined entire fields.
 09:45: Brilliant is a math and science learning site that encourages members to learn through problem solving.


20180418: Using Stars to See Gravitational Waves
 09:21: All of brilliant.org's many courses on math and physics use the best pedagogical practices.


20180411: The Physics of Life (ft. It's Okay to be Smart & PBS Eons!)
 08:48: ... demonstrated mathematically that selfreplicating molecules and simple singlecell life are ...


20180404: The Unruh Effect
 07:52: It's been worked out with math and everything.


20180315: Hawking Radiation
 04:54: The narrative of Hawking's mathematics goes something like this.
 08:13: So Hawking's math describes splitting or mixing of these pure positive and negative frequency modes.
 11:00: It's hard to make Hawking radiation go away in the math.


20180228: The Trebuchet Challenge
 06:04: Our first question requires no math.


20180214: What is Energy?
 01:00: Instead, it's a mathematical relationship between other more fundamental quantities.
 01:05: It was 17th century polymath Gottfried Leibniz who first figured out the mathematical form of what we call kinetic energy, the energy of motion.
 10:16: ... relationship between conservation laws and symmetries was discovered by mathematician Emmy Noether and Noether's theorem is something we will come back ...
 11:37: ... and get access to a library of different video lectures about science, math, history, literature, or even how to cook, play chess, or become a ...


20180131: Kronos: Devourer Of Worlds
 05:54: The researchers tested the hypothesis by throwing a bunch of Earthlike planets into a sunlike star mathematically, I mean.


20180124: The End of the Habitable Zone
 10:09: To really gain intuition about our often very unintuitive universe, you need to start solving problems in physics, math, and astronomy.
 10:22: They've built problem based courses a huge range of subjects, including a lot of math but also physics, astronomy, and computer science.
 13:03: ... you should check out our sister channel PBS "Infinite Series." It's a math channel when we're covering topics from topology to cryptography to ...


20180117: Horizon Radiation
 07:43: Well, because they actually make the mathematics much easier.


20180110: What Do Stars Sound Like?
 00:38: ... mathematical models emerged in the early 1900s that described the balance between the ...
 09:32: To really gain intuition about our often very unintuitive universe, you need to start solving problems in physics, math, and astronomy.
 09:46: They built problembased courses on a huge range of subjects, including a lot of math, but also physics, astronomy, and computer science.


20171206: Understanding the Uncertainty Principle with Quantum Fourier Series
 03:17: This is Fourier's theorem, after French mathematician JeanBaptiste Joseph Fourier.
 11:37: ... and get access to a library of different video lectures about science, math, history, literature, or even how to cook, play chess, or become a ...


20171019: The Nature of Nothing
 02:57: In fact, the math of quantum field theory is all about going up and down this particle ladder, using socalled creation and annihilation operators.
 06:23: ... can be argued that virtual particles are just a mathematical tool to describe the behavior of a dynamic vacuum and that no such ...
 11:42: ... and get access to a library of different video lectures about science, math, history, literature, or even how to cook, play chess, or become a ...
 14:55: Well, it's a quirk of the math.


20171011: Absolute Cold
 02:27: It's mathematical form was our first hint at the quantum nature of the subatomic world.


20171004: When Quasars Collide STJC
 12:39: Take whatever math and physics they offer.


20170928: Are the Fundamental Constants Changing?
 11:28: ... and get access to a library of different video lectures about science, math, history, literature, or even how to cook, play chess, or become a ...


20170913: Neutron Stars Collide in New LIGO Signal?
 14:53: I said that the Big Bang is mathematically similar to a white hole, except that it doesn't possess a singularity.


20170830: White Holes
 00:05: Lurking in the depths of the mathematics of Einstein's general relativity is an object even stranger than the mysterious black hole.
 00:37: ... theory of relativity, physicists wondered how seriously to take this mathematical description of an inescapable region of ...
 00:50: ... own Milky Way galaxy harbor these gravitational monstrosities, but the mathematics that predicts the existence of the black hole also describes entities ...
 01:21: A white hole is the opposite of a black hole in a very literal mathematical sense.
 02:12: ... before everyone gets too excited, white holes are probably a figment of mathematical imagination, but they're a fascinating one, and the idea may help us ...
 02:26: White holes first emerged in the very earliest mathematical description of black holes.
 08:41: The math describing the white hole is a perfectly good use of the Schwarzschild metric.
 10:18: ... improbable entropy dip, and as it happens, the Big Bang looks mathematically, at least much like a white ...
 11:57: The mathematics of the Schwarzschild metric describes an entirely independent region of space time parallel to our own.


20170810: The OneElectron Universe
 01:29: However, Richard Feynman did take at least one aspect very seriously the mathematical equivalence of antimatter as timereversed matter.
 04:36: But reversing a particle's motion is mathematically the same as watching it in reverse time.


20170726: The Secrets of Feynman Diagrams
 00:42: ... to a measured final state does, in a sense, happen at least in the math. ...
 08:35: The math describing the transfer covers both cases.
 09:12: Mathematically, a timereversed electron looks exactly like a positron like this.
 09:43: These may seem like wildly different processes, but in the math represented by Feynman diagrams, they're exactly the same.


20170719: The Real Star Wars
 12:54: ... and get access to a library of different video lectures about science, math, history, literature, or how to cook, play chess, or become a ...


20170712: Solving the Impossible in Quantum Field Theory
 03:08: ... Richard Feynman developed these pictorial tools to organize the painful mathematics of quantum field theory, but they also serve to give a general idea of ...
 03:46: Each part of the Feynman diagrams represents a chunk of the math.
 09:33: But just as with perturbation theory, physicists found a cunning trick to get around this mathematical inconvenience.


20170707: Feynman's Infinite Quantum Paths
 00:13: ... or not this is true, a mathematical description of this crazy idea led to the most powerful expression of ...
 07:51: ... out how to add particles with spin, the path integral approach is both mathematically equivalent to and more powerful than earlier derivations of quantum ...


20170628: The First Quantum Field Theory
 00:06: ... Feynman called it "the jewel of physics." Of all of our mathematical descriptions of the universe, this one has produced the most stunningly ...
 00:41: Simply by following the math of quantum mechanics, incredible discoveries have been made.
 00:46: Its wild success tells us that the mathematical description provided by quantum mechanics reflects deep truths about reality.
 07:53: His mathematics, then, kept track of the number of particles, or quantum oscillations, in each of these states.
 08:00: ... automatically avoids doublecounting because the math doesn't even try to keep track of the movement of individual photons ...
 12:30: ... and get access to a library of different video lectures about science, math, history, literature, or even how to cook, play chess, or become a ...


20170621: AntiMatter and Quantum Relativity
 01:01: Bohr, Heisenberg, Born, Pauli, and others pieced together a mathematical description for the weird nature of subatomic particles.
 05:10: ... stumbled upon a single simple idea that caused the resulting horrendous mathematics to collapse into an incredibly simple, beautiful ...


20170426: Are You a Boltzmann Brain?
 10:35: ... and get access to a library of different video lectures about science, math, history, literature, or even how to cook, play chess, or become a ...


20170405: Telescopes on the Moon
 11:33: ... an antigravitational effect through negative pressure, in a way that's mathematically similar to dark ...


20170329: How Time Becomes Space Inside a Black Hole
 00:06: ... the strange switching in the roles of space and time that occurs in the mathematics when we drop below the event horizon of a black ...
 00:30: Is this spacetime dyslexia purely a mathematical quirk?
 01:10: I'm going to show you the math one more time.
 04:36: In the mathematics the coordinate r, which once represented distance, now grants the negative sign needed to maintain your causal flow.
 05:07: Let's fall into the black hole one more time, now graphically instead of mathematically.
 13:46: It's now been proved mathematically that time crystals can exist in equilibrium.


20170315: Time Crystals!
 09:51: ... and get access to a library of different video lectures about science, math, history, literature, or even how to cook, play chess, or become a ...


20170215: Telescopes of Tomorrow
 10:04: ... and get access to a library of different video lectures about science, math, history, literature, or even how to cook, play chess, or become a ...


20170202: The Geometry of Causality
 06:56: We just performed a Lorentz transformation, but using geometry rather than math.
 11:56: ... core of a black hole an artifact of the limitations of three dimensional mathematics?" Well, maybe, sort ...
 12:07: ... way out of the mathematical singularity at the center of black holes is with string theory, which ...
 12:36: Jose Hernandez says that, for a mathematician, infinity is just a number.
 12:47: Mathematician Georg Cantor invented set theory, the mathematics we use to study different types of infinity.


20170125: Why Quasars are so Awesome
 10:18: ... and get access to a library of different video lectures about science, math, history, literature, or even how to cook, play chess, or become a ...


20170119: The Phantom Singularity
 00:09: In mathematics, singularities come in wild and wonderful varieties.
 00:36: Let's look at the math.
 01:43: ... the hypothetically infinitely dense core of a black hole, but in math the meaning of this word is much more ...
 01:55: Instead of me trying to explain mathematical singularities, how about we get a real mathematician to do this properly.
 02:09: Kelsey, the math for black holes goes to infinity for different properties and in different locations.
 02:16: What does this mathematical weirdness tell us?
 02:19: Well, mathematicians use the word singularity pretty broadly.
 03:29: ... models of the movement of water to human population growth, mathematics predicts a physical singularity, and we've been forced to reject the ...
 03:55: It's a math show, by the way, so it's sometimes about real stuff.
 03:59: Mathematicians are lucky.
 05:04: OK, that sure is some math.
 07:45: It's as much a mathematical singularity as the one in the center of the black hole.
 10:55: Anyway the upshot is that it's really a breeze to drop through the event horizon, both physically and mathematically.
 12:13: Cheers to Kelsey Houston Edwards for helping us understand mathematical singularities.


20161208: What Happens at the Event Horizon?
 10:47: ... complete mathematical solution for a Schwarzschild black hole has two additional regions, one ...
 11:07: These are strange mathematical entities and probably aren't real, but we'll certainly come back to them.
 11:39: ... and get access to a library of different video lectures about science, math, history, literature, or even how to cook, play chess, or become a ...
 18:25: ... was unable to pull the math together in time for the fated Solvay Conference, and so derived the ...


20161130: Pilot Wave Theory and Quantum Realism
 00:47: There are some pretty out there explanations for the processes at work behind the incredibly successful mathematics of quantum mechanics.
 06:58: Well, for one thing, it needs a teensy bit of extra math that mainstream interpretations don't.
 07:16: That "extra math" is considered unparsimonious to some, a needless added complexity.
 08:05: ... soon after de Broglie first proposed pilotwaves, the revered mathematician John Von Neumann published a proof showing that hidden variable ...
 08:43: ... was figured out pretty soon after Von Neumann's paper by German mathematician Grete Hermann, although her refutation wasn't noticed until it was ...


20161116: Strange Stars
 00:14: [MUSIC PLAYING] The mathematics of modern physics that emerged through the 20th century explained so much about our universe.
 00:28: But the same mathematics also hid some surprises.
 00:32: ... are monsters lurking in that math, predictions of phenomena so extreme and bizarre that, as with any ...
 09:28: Nothing is confirmed yet, but there are tantalizing hints that these exotic stars, these monsters in the math, may be very real.


20161109: Did Dark Energy Just Disappear?
 10:33: When you mathematically combine the certainty contours of two completely independent measurements they give you a much tighter range of possibilities.
 12:29: ... and get access to a library of different video lectures about science, math, history, literature, or even how to cook, play chess, or become a ...


20161026: The Many Worlds of the Quantum Multiverse
 00:53: Mathematically, this is encapsulated in the wave function of a quantum particle or system of particles.
 05:52: This sounds outrageous, but it's a very serious interpretation of the mathematics of quantum mechanics.
 08:18: ... worlds may, in fact, be the more pure interpretation of the mathematics of quantum mechanics because there's nothing in that math that requires ...
 09:47: ... so although it is supported by the incredibly successful mathematics of quantum mechanics, it has not yet added a prediction that might ...


20161012: Black Holes from the Dawn of Time
 10:15: ... and get access to a library of different video lectures about science, math, history, literature, or even how to cook, play chess, or become a ...


20160921: Quantum Entanglement and the Great BohrEinstein Debate
 00:17: [MUSIC PLAYING] Babies may suck at math.


20160914: SelfReplicating Robots and Galactic Domination
 03:05: ... even in the late '40s, John Von Neumann, Hungarian mathematician, physicist, inventor, and general cofounder of the modern technological ...
 10:03: ... and get access to a library of different video lectures about science, math, history, literature, or even how to cook, play chess, or become a ...


20160824: Should We Build a Dyson Sphere?
 10:20: ... and get access to a library of different video lectures about science, math, history, literature, or even how to cook, play chess, or become a ...


20160727: The Quantum Experiment that Broke Reality
 06:00: ... call the mathematical description of this wavelike distribution of properties a "wave ...
 10:33: ... and get access to a library of different video lectures about science, math, history, literature, or even how to cook, play chess, or become a ...


20160622: Planck's Constant and The Origin of Quantum Mechanics
 04:54: The key to unlocking the mystery lay in finding a mathematical description for the blackbody spectrum.
 06:37: ... they tried to mathematically distribute heat energy to equipartitionates across possible energy ...
 06:51: ... Mathematically, Rayleigh and Jeans were chasing Zeno's tortoise, infinitely dividing the ...
 07:09: ... searching for a new mathematical approach to deriving the blackbody spectrum, he needed some sort of math ...
 08:26: It was supposed to be a math trick.
 08:59: ... given a mathematical form for the blackbody spectrum, it was possible to do this just by ...
 11:09: ... and get access to a library of different video lectures about science, math, history, literature, or even how to cook, play chess, become a ...


20160608: New Fundamental Particle Discovered?? + Challenge Winners!
 13:01: Blah, blah, math, blah.


20160601: Is Quantum Tunneling Faster than Light?
 01:30: French mathematician and physicist Louis de Broglie figured out that any material object is really a matter wave.


20160525: Is an Ice Age Coming?
 12:12: 4798Alexander4798 asks, is the universe behaving its way because math, or is math behaving its way because universe?
 12:28: My guess the universe doesn't know any math.
 12:37: Mathematics is a model that we use to describe the behavior of the universe.
 14:32: But, for example, a stress energy momentum pseudo tensor isn't mathematically the same thing as classical energy.
 14:39: This gets us back to the idea of whether the universe knows math.
 14:43: The universe is mechanistic and its behavior results in emergent mathematical laws that allow us to model and predict its behavior.
 15:05: It just acts according to a deep, and presumably very simple, set of fundamental rules that give rise to mathematical relationships.


20160518: Antigravity and the True Nature of Dark Energy
 06:54: That's what antigravity looks like mathematically.
 06:58: This is not just some math trick.
 09:19: Relativistically, negative pressure has to do the opposite of positive pressure and results in antigravity, because math.


20160427: What Does Dark Energy Really Do?
 07:10: However, this accelerating expansion can be explained with the same bit of math, the cosmological constant, pointing to the same physics, dark energy.
 07:53: Let's take a mathematical ride into the far future, when the galaxies will be so far away that the density of the universe will be basically zero.
 11:34: Thomas Waclav has a reasonable concern about just adding stuff to your math until it works.


20160420: Why the Universe Needs Dark Energy
 10:56: But if you have a knack for math and a passion for physics, that shouldn't deter you.


20160413: Will the Universe Expand Forever?
 01:09: We'll need to peer into the mathematics of general relativity.
 03:07: The mathematical step from Newton's gravity to escape velocity comes from thinking about energy.


20160406: We Are Star Stuff
 00:35: These can all be described with chalkboard math.
 00:39: ... they manifest through their vibrations, these all lend themselves to mathematical representations that even our own limited minds can ...


20160330: Pulsar Starquakes Make Fast Radio Bursts? + Challenge Winners!
 03:05: OK, now for the mathy one.


20160323: How Cosmic Inflation Flattened the Universe
 06:48: Actually, Einstein came up with the exact mathematical description that we need an antigravity term called the cosmological constant.
 07:17: But this bit of math gives us exactly the type of expansion that we need for inflation.


20160309: Cosmic Microwave Background Challenge
 01:19: The first one is purely conceptual and requires no math, while the second most definitely requires math.
 02:39: Seriously, no math required.
 02:42: ... and the mathy question just before the CMB was created, the universe was filled with ...


20160302: What’s Wrong With the Big Bang Theory?
 01:06: ... size by rewinding the laws of physics, and in particular running the math of Einstein's general theory of relativity ...


20160224: Why the Big Bang Definitely Happened
 01:15: ... descriptions are in the mathematical language of physics, and they build on and are supported by many ...
 02:28: If we rewind the universe using the mathematics of general relativity, then the further back you go, the smaller the universe is.


20160217: Planet X Discovered?? + Challenge Winners!
 05:44: To answer this, you actually need some math.


20160120: The Photon Clock Challenge
 00:06: Now, this one is conceptual, not mathematical.


20151209: How to Build a Black Hole
 00:42: And just because something exists in the mathematics does not mean it has to exist in reality.


20151125: 100 Years of Relativity + Challenge Winners!
 00:36: ... of thought experiments, simple statements about reality and yet the mathematical description that flowers from those statements describes our universe ...
 01:32: But for now we have some math to do and it's all going to be Newtonian.


20151028: Is The Alcubierre Warp Drive Possible?
 00:45: ... choice of the word "warp." Alcubierre constructed a warp field in the mathematical language of Einstein's theory of general relativity, a real solution to ...


20151007: The Speed of Light is NOT About Light
 02:17: And there's this sense that physics might be done, except there are hints of something horribly wrong lurking in the math actually, two hints.
 04:17: This transformation thing, it's like a mathy magic wand that you wave at your description of spacetime or your physical laws.


20150923: Does Dark Matter BREAK Physics?
 07:10: But it's all mathematical fantasy until we detect the particle.


20150827: Watch THIS! (New Host + Challenge Winners)
 04:24: ... the answer to that question, along with all the math that we used to figure it out, can be accessed at this document with ...
 04:35: Well, I think it's really important that you actually go and look at the math.
 04:47: But in the end, sometimes you just got to do the math.


20150819: Do Events Inside Black Holes Happen?
 13:07: ... that right and shoofle both asked whether there are some more mathematical resources or papers that I could give you explaining the same ...


20150812: Challenge: Which Particle Wins This Race?
 00:09: This time around, you're going to need some math, and you'll need to be familiar with high school level physics.


20150805: What Physics Teachers Get Wrong About Tides!
 04:09: More important, the math of assuming the bulges are being lifted doesn't work out.
 07:45: Second, in the simple model of a water world Earth, the math says that the water level should vary by about 3/4 of a meter between high and low tide.
 12:56: ... that I've linked in the description that give you a slightly more mathematical treatment of ...


20150729: General Relativity & Curved Spacetime Explained!
 07:21: Unfortunately, the math gets heavier here and good analogies are harder to come by.


20150722: SPECIAL ANNOUNCEMENT + Flat Spacetime Geometry Comments
 01:47: That's what studying physics is like when you're trying to do it at any depth, even if you're not getting into the math.


20150715: Can You Trust Your Eyes in Spacetime?
 06:57: ... the physical world as geometric objects and relations in a tenseless mathematical space, we can discover facts about physics just by exploring geometry in ...


20150708: The Leap Second Explained
 00:10: Supposedly, leap seconds are related to this slowing rotation, but the math seems to be way off.


20150708: Curvature Demonstrated + Comments
 04:41: Patch by patch, lay down a regular xy grid like you do in math class.


20150702: Can a Circle Be a Straight Line?
 01:33: ... on what we really mean by straight line and by flat verses curved mathematical ...
 02:22: Let's start with this picture of the flat Euclidean 2D plane from high school math class.
 03:26: Mathematicians realized a long time ago that this definition generalizes very nicely and it's also very useful.
 08:07: In the meantime, you can put your questions about geodesics and curved mathematical spaces down in the comments below.


20150617: How to Signal Aliens
 08:00: ... trying to take material that is inherently mathematical and that it takes most professionals years to understand and make it ...


20150520: The Real Meaning of E=mc²
 03:32: Whenever you turn on a flashlight, its math starts to drop immediately.


20150506: Should the First Mars Mission Be All Women?
 04:43: But what Greene doesn't give us is an actual numerical estimate of the savings, so I did some rough math.


20150429: What's the Most Realistic Artificial Gravity in SciFi?
 06:43: ... adviser for "Battlestar Galactica" and the movie "Gravity," did the math. ...


20150422: Are Space and Time An Illusion?
 04:13: ... shortly after relativity first came out, a former math professor of Einstein's named Hermann Minkowski noticed that the ...
 04:33: Instead, it's a four dimensional nonEuclidean mathematical space that's just there.
 04:42: That 4D mathematical space is spacetime.
 05:14: They're more like the XY grid we use in math class, useful for talking about the board, but arbitrary and inherently meaningless.


20150415: Could NASA Start the Zombie Apocalypse?
 00:52: ... nonjoking textbooks and academic papers have been written with detailed mathematical and computer models of how a zombie epidemic would ...


20150408: Could You Fart Your Way to the Moon?
 04:36: Let's do the math.


20150325: Cosmic Microwave Background Explained
 02:32: The CNB is one of the closest things to a mathematically perfect thermal spectrum that has ever been observed.


20150225: How Do You Measure the Size of the Universe?
 04:42: Step two is, well, annoying math.


20150211: What Planet Is Super Mario World?
 02:55: ... using Nintendo emulators, screen capture programs, and actual mathematical ...
