
20221116: Are there Undiscovered Elements Beyond The Periodic Table?
 07:36: However, electromagnetism just keeps getting stronger the closer two electric charges get.


20221019: The Equation That Explains (Nearly) Everything!
 10:36: ... by a new symbol which represents the charge that field interacts with: electric charge, isospin, hypercharge, and color charge, and the more complex the ...


20221012: The REAL Possibility of Mapping Alien Planets!
 19:23: ... but the most natural thing to change is the ratio of the electric charge squared to vacuum permittivity. Remember that the find ...


20220928: Why Is 1/137 One of the Greatest Unsolved Problems In Physics?
 10:02: There’s no way for the alien civilization to recognize these numbers without knowing our units for distance, time, mass, electric charge, etc.


20220824: What Makes The Strong Force Strong?
 02:03: ... that if you arrange particles according to their strangeness and their electric charge, they fall into geometric patterns like this hexagon with eight particles ...
 08:49: Let's say we have a proton and an electron, their electric charges attract and they form a neutral hydrogen atom.
 11:32: That means photons can interact with objects without affecting their electric charge, and thus neutral objects can interact with magnetic fields.


20220720: What If We Live in a Superdeterministic Universe?
 17:03: ... that note, Dandelion Stitches points out that the problem with electric charge sign convention could be resolved by including a list of common ...


20220630: Could We Decode Alien Physics?
 00:00: ... circuitry is the lightest lepton and has negative electric charge. Obviously the ...
 01:25: ... circuitry, not electronic. It’s just that they define electric charge in the opposite way  electrons positive, positrons ...
 02:25: ... we figure that out, let’s recall how we humans decided on our own electric charge sign convention. It was a pretty arbitrary choice ...
 04:59: ... equations tell us how particles with electric charges respond to each other. They don’t care what names we give those ...
 05:20: ... the laws of physics to determine the alien sign convention for electric charge. ...
 06:55: ... depends on an arbitrary convention, just like the sign of electric charge  in this case, something called the righthand ...
 07:38: ... minus sign can equally be interpreted as a flip in the sign of the electric charge in that equation. If you change the convention for parity by ...
 10:41: ... so we still need to know which sign convention they use for electric charge. The combination of charge and parity transformation  appears to ...
 11:52: ... What if the aliens use reverse conventions for the sign of electric charge, the handedness of parity, and the direction of the flow of ...


20220427: How the Higgs Mechanism Give Things Mass
 01:11: The W bosons are especially weird in that they also have electric charge.
 04:37: ... that look like weak isospin and weak hypercharge, but no electric charge. In our universe these three quantities are sort of ...
 05:24: ... and hypercharge are tightly coupled, and their combination defines electric charge. Is it time to give up on this symmetry stuff ...


20220323: Where Is The Center of The Universe?
 14:46: ... in search of habitable worlds, and the other one where we asked whether electric charge really is a fundamental property of ...


20220316: What If Charge is NOT Fundamental?
 00:07: It's as though this thing  electric charge  is as fundamental a property of an object as its mass.
 00:44: Except that all of electromagnetism is powered by a single property: electric charge.
 00:50: And neither Maxwell’s equations nor QED say a thing about what electric charge really is.
 01:20: But actually, in the case of electric charge we have at least one or two more “but why’s” with which we can annoy the universe.
 01:52: ... same mass, with the only major difference being our mysterious friend  electric charge. ...
 03:44: But for isospin to really do its job, it needed to explain the most obvious difference between protons and neutrons  which is to say electric charge.
 04:14: For example, some of these particles had very similar masses but very different electric charges, which I hope reminds you of the proton and neutron.
 04:33: But what exactly was the connection between isospin and electric charge?
 04:54: Similar to how the electron and positron are only created in pairs in order to conserve electric charge.
 05:13: ... spin, this new property seemed to obey the math for our old friend electric charge. ...
 05:30: Electric charge, isospin and hypercharge were intimately connected across all particles.
 05:37: In fact, it seemed that electric charge was just isospin plus half of hypercharge.
 07:05: Isospin and hypercharge seemed to be “deeper” than electric charge.
 08:12: So after all this hard thinking it turns out that isospin and hypercharge were as much mathematical abstractions as was electric charge.
 08:21: ... governs these differences between particle groups, and that also governs electric charge. ...
 08:59: ... it's by unraveling one of the forces of nature that we can explain electric charge  but it's not the strong force, it's not even ...
 09:07: The secrets of electric charge are actually hiding in the last, most obscure of the quantum forces  the weak force.
 10:58: It acts more like electric charge, so we'll be imaginative and call it weak hypercharge.
 11:14: Which is to say, electric charge equals weak isospin plus half weak hypercharge.
 11:35: That's right, quarks feel the weak force and obey the same rule for their electric charge.
 12:04: So does that mean that electric charge is not really fundamental?
 12:31: ... specific combination of values  the combination that we now observe as electric charge. ...
 12:50: So we now know that electric charge is a sort of shadow of the ancient fields from the birth of the universe.
 13:15: But is it any more fundamental that the dubiously fundamental electric charge?


20220127: How Does Gravity Escape A Black Hole?
 10:30: And this last argument also tells us how it can be that a black hole can possess electric charge.
 10:37: If a black hole swallows electric charge, the electromagnetic field around the black hole grows.


20211210: 2021 End of Year AMA!
 00:02: ... is conducting plates that are close together and sending a bunch of electric charge through it i'm sure that it was more advanced than that apparently ...


20211117: Are Black Holes Actually Fuzzballs?
 01:14: ... properties that we can observe from outside a black hole are its mass, electric charge, and angular ...


20211013: New Results in Quantum Tunneling vs. The Speed of Light
 15:57: Same as if the black hole held electric charge; it would produce an electric field.


20211005: Why Magnetic Monopoles SHOULD Exist
 00:35: ... cut the bar in half and you get a pair of electric charges  one negative and one positive, both of which have electric fields that ...
 00:55: So if we cut this bar in half surely we get a pair of magnetic charges similar to our electric charges, right?
 01:51: ...  electron spin or or a circular electric current there’s a sense of electric charge in ...
 02:06: And according to classical electrodynamics, moving electric charge is the source of the magnetic field.
 03:00: ... the divergence of the electric field is not zero  it’s equal to the electric charge ...
 03:16: So there are such things as isolated electric charges.
 03:30: ... electricity and magnetism which only gets screwed up when you put in the electric charge  here in the form of charge density and current ...
 07:29: The amount of the phase shift is proportional to the electric charge.
 07:42: ... for the Dirac string to be undetectable then electric charge can only exist in integer multiples of that basic charge This is a very ...
 08:13: ... the one hand this was taken as a prediction of the quantization of electric charge  electric charge has to be discrete if there’s even a single magnetic ...
 08:25: And of course we know that electric charge really is quantized  it can only be integer multiples of the charge of the electron.
 08:34: ... quantization, you can also flip it: magnetic monopoles are possible if electric charge is ...
 14:18: Kyle, we are taught by Paul Dirac that if there's even a single magnetic monopole in the entire universe then electric charge must be quantized.


20210915: Neutron Stars: The Most Extreme Objects in the Universe
 02:00: ... positron currents flowing the other way due to their opposite electric charges. These and other charged particles end up being ...


20210407: Why the Muon g2 Results Are So Exciting!
 01:56: ... from the part of the Standard Model that describes how particles with electric charge interact via the electromagnetic force, quantum ...
 03:09: Every particle with electric charge also has quantum spin.
 03:15: ... with quantum spin do generate a magnetic field, same as if you send an electric charge around a looped wire, or have electrical currency in Earth's spinning ...


20210309: How Does Gravity Affect Light?
 03:56: ... process that generates a photon can be thought of as a clock  be it an electric charge pulsing up and down a radio antenna, or an atom vibrating back and forth ...


20200728: What is a Theory of Everything: Livestream
 00:00: ... james you would call those the lepton number the spin and the char electric charge and so on but that's just the words that we humans made up right the ...


20200720: The Boundary Between Black Holes & Neutron Stars
 12:34: ... trying to disolve an event horizon by throwoing more and more electric charge into it  Ultimantis points out that it would be increasingly difficult ...


20200630: Dissolving an Event Horizon
 02:22: According to the socalled nohair theorem, black holes can have only three properties  mass, electric charge, and spin.
 04:10: ... presence of electric charge at the central singularity  which pointlike in this case  results in ...
 04:28: The more electric charge you drop into a black hole, the larger its inner horizon becomes.


20200518: Mapping the Multiverse
 01:16: ... that mass is NOT rotating and does not have any electric charge, the result is a Schwarzschild black hole, which is about as simple as ...
 01:53: We sometimes call a rotating black hole with no electric charge a Kerr black hole.


20200324: How Black Holes Spin Space Time
 01:35: According to the nohair theorem, black holes can have three and only three properties: mass, electric charge, and spin.
 01:44: ... them black holes in the first place. Essentially no black holes have electric charge  if somehow one does acquire charge it would quickly lose it because it ...


20200211: Are Axions Dark Matter?
 06:54: ... CP problem quite well. This hypothetical axion particle would have no electric charge, no quantum spin, be extreme ly light  a tiny fraction of the mass of ...
 07:53: ... to detect such an elusive particles? Well, even though axions have no electric charge, they can still interact with the electromagnetic field and produce ...


20200106: How To Detect a Neutrino
 02:58: ♪ ♪ That's possible because, unlike neutrinos, protons have an electric charge.


20191007: Black Hole Harmonics
 09:44: General relativity predicts that black holes should be completely defined by three properties – their mass, spin, and electric charge.
 10:08: ... astrophysical black holes are also expected to have no electric charge, so mass and spin should define everything – including the nature of the ...


20190130: Perpetual Motion From Negative Mass?
 03:41: That’s the opposite to electric charge, in which like charges repel and opposite charges attract.


20190116: Our Antimatter, Mirrored, TimeReversed Universe
 03:02: ... is the C part of cpt charge conjugation all charges switch side electric charge but also quark color charge weak hypercharge etc that's what a switch to ...


20181220: Why String Theory is Wrong
 04:07: Momentum in that loop dimension has the exact behavior of electric charge, with the direction of rotation determining the sign of the charge.
 04:17: It was an incredible discovery and a beautiful one. It even made a prediction: the ratio between the mass of the electric charge and the electron.
 04:26: Assuming the experimentally measured value for the electric charge, the corresponding electron mass should be around five kilograms?


20181212: Quantum Physics in a Mirror Universe
 00:02: ... discrete symmetries include charge conjugation flipping the sign of the electric charge and time reversal sending the clock ticking backwards we'll come back to ...


20181018: What are the Strings in String Theory?
 07:24: And those modes, in turn, define particle properties like electric charge and spin.


20180920: Quantum Gravity and the Hardest Problem in Physics
 09:33: ... quantum electrodynamics, the electron has a selfinteraction due to its electric charge messing with the surrounding electromagnetic ...


20180905: The Black Hole Entropy Enigma
 02:08: From the point of view of the outside universe, black holes can only have three properties mass, spin, and electric charge.
 04:59: We can easily measure its mass, spin, and electric charge, and according to the nohair theorem that's all there is to know.


20180815: Quantum Theory's Most Incredible Prediction
 03:03: Magnetic fields are produced by moving electric charges.
 03:41: ... fields seem intuitive if you think of them as tiny balls of rotating electric charge, except electrons aren't balls and they aren't really ...


20180711: Quantum Invariance & The Origin of The Standard Model
 08:17: We also learned about the origin of electric charge, which we now see as a coupling turn.
 08:35: In order to have this particular type of local phase invariance, particles must possess electric charge.
 08:48: In this case, the symmetry is local phase invariance and the conserved quantity is electric charge.
 09:28: But what about all those fundamental particles without electric charge?


20180704: Will A New Neutrino Change The Standard Model?
 02:10: ... going to drop through the standard model of particle physics, electric charge and antimatter, the bizarreness of quantum chirality and the Higgs ...
 03:02: These have far lower mass, and unlike quarks and leptons, they have no electric charge, hence neutrino or little neutral one.
 03:16: An antimatter version of a particle has the same mass and the opposite electric charge.
 05:00: Like electric charge, chirality is also reversed in antimatter.


20180620: The Black Hole Information Paradox
 01:54: It states that black holes can only exhibit three properties mass, electric charge, and angular momentum.
 13:03: If you keep injecting charge into a black hole, then it does maintain an electric charge.
 13:20: ... electric charge within the black hole produces a negative pressure that actually halts ...
 13:41: ... Blade asks how it can be that the outside of a black hole can feel its electric charge given that the electromagnetic field is communicated by photons and ...
 13:53: ... we talked about a black hole's electric charge in terms of the classical electromagnetic field which has an existence ...


20180613: What Survives Inside A Black Hole?
 01:09: ... properties are mass, electric charge, and angular momentum, or at least this is the proposition behind the ...
 01:45: ... at Princeton when he proposed that no other properties besides mass, electric charge, and angular momentum should emerge from beneath the event ...
 02:28: ... the material that went into the black hole are its massenergy content, electric charge, and angular ...
 03:06: So how does mass, electric charge, and angular momentum communicate their influence across the uncrossable horizon?
 06:04: This means that the electric field above the event horizon of a black hole remembers all of the electric charge that fell through that surface.
 08:08: By the way, it's worth mentioning that real black holes out there in the universe are never going to have a net electric charge.


20180523: Why Quantum Information is Never Destroyed
 02:05: For example, we could reverse all electric charges, or we could flip the xaxis by looking in a mirror, or we could make time run backwards.


20180516: Noether's Theorem and The Symmetries of Reality
 07:31: For example, another conserved quantity in physics is electric charge.
 07:54: This symmetry leads to the conservation of electric charge and electric current.


20180411: The Physics of Life (ft. It's Okay to be Smart & PBS Eons!)
 11:38: That emission looks like a straightforward quantum process, analogous to photon emission by an accelerating electric charge.


20170719: The Real Star Wars
 17:02: So the electric charge, which in turn depends on the fine structure constant.


20170712: Solving the Impossible in Quantum Field Theory
 10:27: ... arise in quantum field theory for example, the infinite shielding of electric charge due to virtual particleantiparticle pairs popping into and out of ...


20170621: AntiMatter and Quantum Relativity
 02:47: For example, an electron's spin causes them to align themselves with magnetic fields, just like a rotating electric charge would.
 07:57: It would also act like it had the opposite electric charge to the electron, a positive charge.


20170405: Telescopes on the Moon
 05:17: Hit by sunlight, tiny regolith particles build up electric charge, and so repel each other into dust fountains in the low lunar gravity.
 11:24: One possibility could be in a ReissnerNordstrom black hole, so one with electric charge, but no spin.


20161214: Escape The Kugelblitz Challenge
 01:11: The Penrose diagram we looked at represents a Schwarchild black hole so no electric charge and no rotation, but also an eternal black hole.


20161208: What Happens at the Event Horizon?
 11:13: We'll also come back to what happens if we set the black hole spinning or add some electric charge.


20161019: The First Humans on Mars
 09:36: Black holes exhibit only three properties mass, electric charge, and spin.


20151216: The Higgs Mechanism Explained
 04:26: ... like regular electric charge, which lets all electrons feel the electromagnetic force, except in this ...


20151209: How to Build a Black Hole
 10:24: The black hole retains mass, electric charge, and spin.


20151007: The Speed of Light is NOT About Light
 03:00: Well, magnetism comes from moving electric charges.
