
20221208: How Are Quasiparticles Different From Particles?
 06:47: They have energy equal to the planck constant times their frequency.


20221012: The REAL Possibility of Mapping Alien Planets!
 19:23: ... squared divided by 4pi time the vacuum permittivity the Planck constant times the speed of light. If the fine structure ...


20220928: Why Is 1/137 One of the Greatest Unsolved Problems In Physics?
 00:43: Like the speed of light, the gravitational constant, or Planck’s constant.
 02:55: ... the electron, divided by four times pi, the permittivity of free space, Planck's constant and the speed of ...
 03:28: ... the speed of light in meters per second, vacuum permittivity and Planck's constant also have their ...
 09:57: Try the gravitational or Planck’s constant and you also have to define the kilogram.
 11:33: ... the relationship between mass, distance, and gravitational force, Planck's Constant is the relationship between the uncertainty in measuring ...


20220817: What If Dark Energy is a New Quantum Field?
 04:47: ... much … 1, the default option. Our most precise measurement comes from Planck satellite data, which mapped the cosmic microwave background. The Planck ...
 06:25: ... of the very early universe we get a different number. The latter is from Planck satellite measurements of the cosmic microwave background. The current ...


20220720: What If We Live in a Superdeterministic Universe?
 16:56: For example, Planck units, or the energies or masses or decay timescales of common particles and elements.


20220601: What If Physics IS NOT Describing Reality?
 08:49: ... in a particle’s position and momentum has to be greater than the Planck constant divided by ...


20220504: Space DOES NOT Expand Everywhere
 10:33: ... with quantum mechanics. There is a smallest measurable length called the Planck length. When space expands, what happens to this smallest ...
 10:52: ... it expand too? Well the Planck length stays the same  it’s just defined as a combination of the ...


20220210: The Nature of Space and Time AMA
 00:03: ... possible size the plank length a smallest possible duration the planck time and we know this because general relativity and quantum ...


20211117: Are Black Holes Actually Fuzzballs?
 10:30: The normally Plancklength strings can therefore pile up into fuzzballs with sizes ranging from kilometers to light years.
 11:07: But if you approach the fuzzball you start to see this surface of stringy material with a thickness of about a Planck length.
 12:20: In string theory we have extra compact dimensions  spatial dimensions that are coiled up on the Planck scale so we can’t see them.


20210721: How Magnetism Shapes The Universe
 06:45: ... has now been done in incredible detail by the Planck mission, which mapped polarization of the cosmic microwave background  ...


20210707: Electrons DO NOT Spin
 12:13: ... momenta can only be observed as plus or minus a half times the reduced Planck constant, projected onto whichever direction you try ...


20210623: How Quantum Entanglement Creates Entropy
 16:17: OK, and moving on to our episode on the Planck Length.
 16:20: ... Johnson asks a good one. If space is like a 3D grid of Plancklength scale, and movement means flicking from one cell to the ...
 16:39: ... one direction  but that would reduce the grid width and hence the Planck length in that direction, which is also wrong  the ...


20210616: Can Space Be Infinitely Divided?
 00:00: ... apart. Half the distance 115 times and they’re a single Plancklength apart  1.6x10^35 meters. Surely we can keep going  ...
 00:40: ... on space, let’s zoom back in time to see where the idea of the Planck length even came ...
 01:16: ... the final year of the 19th century, Max Planck ushered in the quantum age by thinking about hot pokers. He ...
 02:21: ... the Planck constant comes the Planck length. It’s the length you get ...
 02:38: ...  or gedankenexperiments as a good German physicist like Max Planck would call ...
 04:30: ... photon’s momentum is the Planck constant divided by its wavelength. So just replace photon ...
 05:08: ... on today is that through the uncertainty principle we see that the Planck constant represents the limit to which we can measure the universe. ...
 06:39: ... photon  its energy over c^2, and the energy of a photon is Planck’s constant times c^2 over the wavelength. We have this thing ...
 07:10: ... of space. So this is one way of thinking about it  the Planck length represents the best possible resolution that any distance ...
 07:48: ... photon has enough effective mass to produce a black hole with a Plancklength event horizon  so any attempt to measure ...
 08:37: ... in that volume. By the time we localize the electron to within one Planck length, the uncertainty in energy is about equal to ...
 09:58: ... stop us measuring distances or sizes smaller than the Planck length. But now we get to the big question: does that mean that ...
 10:55: ... defined by Einstein’s general relativity, and GR breaks down at the Planck scale because we can’t sensibly define distances. We think ...


20210609: Are We Running Out of Space Above Earth?
 14:14: Last episode was on Planck Relics, those subatomic scale black holes that could be literally everywhere and even explain dark matter.
 14:31: Well first of all, Planck relics would be so impossibly tiny that all matter would be like empty space to them.
 14:43: The gravitational interaction is weak except right next to the relic  on the scale of Planck lenfths.
 14:56: The problem then is that the black hole will immediately Hawkingradiate back down to a Planck relic.
 15:05: So Planck relics will stay Planck relics unless you can force feed them at an enormous rate.
 15:11: Johanna Mueller never realized that the Planck mass is such a huge thing.
 15:16: Two hundredths of a milligram is giant compared to the 1.6x10^35 meters of the Planck length or the 5x10^44 seconds of the Planck time.
 15:24: But the planck mass defines the mass of a black hole one Planck length in radius, and remember, black holes are massive!
 15:32: ... asked whether a region dense in Planck relics would emit highenergy radiation as the relics merged and then ...
 16:19: ... time  no selfrespecting physics professor can confidently say that a planck relic didn’t eat your homework. It also explains why I don’t have a ...


20210525: What If (Tiny) Black Holes Are Everywhere?
 00:09: Unless of course Planck relics are a thing  in which case they might be literally everywhere.
 01:31: These remnant black holes, or Planck relics, may be everywhere.
 01:35: To understand Planck relics we need a quick review of Hawking radiation.
 06:31: This would be when the black hole’s mass is around 20 micrograms  what we call the Planck mass.
 06:41: Such a black hole would have an event horizon of around 10^35 meters  the Planck length.
 06:59: So might Plancksized black hole relics, or Planck relics, actually exist?
 07:04: ... by saying that we know for sure that general relativity doesn’t work on Planck scales, so even if Planck relics do exist they probably don’t look just ...
 07:37: That’s much longer than the current age of the universe, none of these black holes will have become Planck relics.
 07:45: For Planck relics to exist now we need a way to make black holes that are much smaller than a star.
 09:02: ... explaining Dark Matter, another reason to want Planck relics to be a thing is that they may solve a vexing difficulty that was ...
 09:44: What if all the information they eat is trapped forever in the tiny Planck relic?
 10:41: If Planck relics account for all of dark matter, are they around us right now?
 10:52: Just one Planck relic per 30km cube, and that’s enough to make up most of the mass in the universe.


20210519: Breaking The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
 07:35: ... circle of probability, where the area of the circle is proportional to Planck’s constant, satisfying the uncertainty ...


20210511: How To Know If It's Aliens
 18:32: ... your pockets. And, actually, if dark matter is enormous numbers of Planckmass black holes, perhaps you could actually find your keys AND dark matter ...


20210413: What If Dark Matter Is Just Black Holes?
 11:27: These socalled Planck relics are bad news as dark matter  because they’re essentially undetectable.


20210316: The NEW Crisis in Cosmology
 04:42: ... on the subject to see how our map of the CMB using the Planck satellite can give us the expansion rate. The Planck team ...
 05:52: ... that the nature of dark energy has changed over time. The Planck team’s Hubble constant assumes that dark energy has had ...
 06:22: ... find out one way or the other if the difference between the Planck and supernova results is real. Most people still think that ...
 09:17: ... of the Hubble constant. So what do you think  do the supernova and Planck results agree? Not in the least. The Gaiabased Hubble ...
 09:50: ... options that will either to break the tie between Planck and supernova, or to confirm that the difference is ...
 10:08: ... acoustic oscillations seem to be coming on the side of the Planck result  a Hubble constant in the high ...


20210112: What Happens During a Quantum Jump?
 01:22: ... took a lead from the recent success of Max Planck, who in 1901 had managed to explain the colors of light produced by a ...


20200810: Theory of Everything Controversies: Livestream
 00:00: ... eric a chance to respond but it sounds like to paraphrase you know max planck it might be yeah let me wait for a few more funerals uh uh for ...


20200728: What is a Theory of Everything: Livestream
 00:00: ... you know if you take the basic uh constants of nature uh you know planck's constant gravitational constant speed of light things like this these ...


20200511: How Luminiferous Aether Led to Relativity
 15:13: ... is infinite, or B) what happened before 10^43 seconds  the socalled Planck time. At that point inflation seems to give our best picture, and I'm ...


20200504: How We Know The Universe is Ancient
 12:59: ... on analysis of the cosmic microwave background map produced by the Planck satellite we get the relative amounts of matter and dark energy and a ...


20200203: Are there Infinite Versions of You?
 09:14: ... of entropy in any region of space is proportional to the number of tiny Planck areas covering its ...


20191202: Is The Universe Finite?
 01:02: ... we’ll delve into the Nature Astronomy paper that just reported this: Planck evidence for a closed Universe and a possible crisis for cosmology by ...
 01:19: This is the map of the cosmic microwave background  the CMB  made by the Planck satellite.
 01:38: ... speckles from previous satellites, and the initial analysis from the Planck map, pointed to a universe that is infinitely large and geometrically ...
 02:02: But more detailed study of the Planck data has started to reveal tensions.
 02:06: ... talked about this socalled crisis in cosmology  the Planck team calculate an expansion rate for the universe that does not match ...
 02:41: ... the new study, astrophysicists claim to have found clear evidence in the Planck data that the universe is NOT flat, but rather curved inward on ...
 05:07: But it turns out that evidence of very slight curvature may have been hiding in the Planck data all along.
 05:14: The new study went much deeper into the Planck data than just looking at triangles defined by the biggest blobs.
 06:31: ... scientists were able to determine the amount of lensing present in the Planck CMB map  and they found way more than would be expected for an open ...
 09:48: ... very subtle systematic issue in the calibration of the Planck data may have led to the unexpected results for both the geometry and ...
 09:58: For example, the Planck CMB map required extremely careful subtraction of all other sources of microwave radiation.
 10:11: The "official" analysis of the Planck data was extremely careful so any mistake would have to be very subtle.
 10:18: ... authors of the new study redid part of the Planck analysis to claim this evidence of positive curvature  which the Planck ...
 11:51: The tension between the Planck results and other cosmological measurements seems to be growing.


20191111: Does Life Need a Multiverse to Exist?
 00:50: ... are things like the speed of light, the Planck constant, the masses of the elementary particles, and the constants ...


20191015: Loop Quantum Gravity Explained
 10:32: But on the tiniest of scales – the Planck scale  it’s sort of pixelated.


20190930: How Many Universes Are There?
 12:31: This is something like 15 orders of magnitude smaller than the Planck length.


20190819: What Happened Before the Big Bang?
 09:23: A fraction of the Planck energy within a Planck volume.


20190328: Could the Universe End by Tearing Apart Every Atom?
 11:16: ... is still a faint possibility but even at its most extreme from the planck estimate, the big rip would be around 75 billion years ...


20190220: Secrets of the Cosmic Microwave Background
 01:21: The Planck Satellite's map of the CMB.


20190124: The Crisis in Cosmology
 07:32: ...created by the Planck satellite.
 09:18: ...could give the power spectrum observed by Planck.
 09:35: ...but the Planck power spectrum is so rich with information, that the Planck team...
 09:47: The Planck H0 is 66.9 ± 0.6 kilometers per second per megaparsec,...
 10:26: ...revealed it to be in real conflict with the Planck result from a couple of years earlier.
 10:57: ...in either the supernova or Planck measurements.
 11:08: ...or perhaps gravitational lensing alters the Planck speckles differently to how we thought.
 12:30: ...comes from Planck or SHOES.


20181031: Are Virtual Particles A New Layer of Reality?
 00:58: For example, Max Planck used a quantization trick to figure out the spectrum of light emitted by hot objects.
 12:18: ... in the case of Max Planck discovery of the quantum nature of photons, it turned out that a ...
 12:31: ... Planck knew that he was onto something because there was no way to express his ...


20181018: What are the Strings in String Theory?
 03:58: ... orders of magnitude smaller, shrinking from the size of a proton to the Planck scale, roughly the scale of the difference between the Milky Way galaxy ...
 07:51: We have these Planck scale, onedimensional structures that can be in loops or extended.
 09:23: There's no way to even think about the shape of the gravitational field on the Planck scale that doesn't produce a hopeless conflict.
 09:37: Its interactions are smeared around that string, handily avoiding the explosion of mathematical infinities you get below the Planck length.


20181010: Computing a Universe Simulation
 03:09: Specifically, it's the number of tiny Planck areas you can fit over that surface area divided by 4.
 04:50: Again, the Bekenstein bound is the event horizon surface area in Planck areas with an extra factor of a quarter that Stephen Hawking figured out.
 04:58: So our Bekenstein bound hard drive needs to be roughly 4 by 10 to the power of 80 Planck areas, corresponding to 40 billion square meters.


20181003: How to Detect Extra Dimensions
 14:43: ... relativity and quantum mechanics are both right, then we should have Plancklength virtual black holes popping into and out of ...


20180920: Quantum Gravity and the Hardest Problem in Physics
 05:57: ... turns out that to measure a position to an accuracy better than a Planck length around 10 to the power of negative 35 of a meter, the amount of ...
 06:22: So general relativity plus Heisenberg say it's impossible to measure a length smaller than the Planck length.
 06:46: Try to measure any time period shorter than 10 to the power of negative 43 seconds, the Planck time, and boom black hole.
 07:20: So position can be defined to within a Planck length.
 07:33: Particles whose positions are defined within a Planck length can spontaneously become black holes.
 08:47: But I'll focus on the one that wrongly predicts these crazy fluctuations on the Planck scale.
 11:18: Space and time simply cannot behave in the familiar way below the Planck scale.
 12:46: ... as a special thanks, we're sending you a box of chocolatecovered Planckscale black ...


20180912: How Much Information is in the Universe?
 02:48: ... smallest element is roughly a cube one Planck length on a side, where the Planck length is the smallest meaningful ...
 03:07: One bit per Planck volume.
 03:28: So how many Planck volumes are there in the universe?
 03:31: Well, the radius of the universe is something like 47 billion light years, which is a few times 10 to the power of 61 Planck lengths.
 03:39: 4 on 3 pi r cubed, so the universe contains 10 to the power of 183 Planck volumes.
 03:47: ... see estimates that the radius of the universe is a mere 10 to the 60 Planck lengths, rather than 10 to the 61, and that its volume is 10 to the ...
 04:55: ... us that the information content of any volume isn't the number of these Planck volumes, but rather the number of Planck areas on the ...
 05:04: ... has a surface area of 10 to the power of 120 to 10 to the power of 124 Planck areas, depending on whether you're rounding like a cosmologist or an ...
 07:25: And for black holes, that entropy is the Bekenstein bound, the number of Planck areas on its event horizon.
 07:54: Its event horizon is around 12 billion meters, giving it a surface area of 10 to the power of 90 to 10 to the power of 91 Planck units.
 08:55: ... if we started to fill up those empty Plancksized cubes of space throughout the universe until it contained more ...


20180905: The Black Hole Entropy Enigma
 08:22: In fact, the information content is very close to that surface area divided by the number of Planck areas.


20180823: How Will the Universe End?
 11:07: He figures that the most likely minimum black hole mass is the Planck mass of 20 micrograms.


20180704: Will A New Neutrino Change The Standard Model?
 09:49: ... analysis of the cosmic microwave background radiation by the Planck satellite shows that the early rates of expansion of the universe is ...


20180124: The End of the Habitable Zone
 11:20: ... should include all particles and their energy distribution should be the Planck distribution, the same distribution as black body radiation from ...


20171129: Citizen Science + ZeroPoint Challenge Answer
 07:06: ... you choose that to be the frequency corresponding to a photon with the Planck energy, you get a vacuum energy density of a ridiculously high 10 to the ...
 07:49: The frequency of a photon with the Planck energy is the Planck energy divided by the Planck constant, or an insane 3 by 10 to the power of 42 hertz.


20171102: The Vacuum Catastrophe
 01:55: ... the vacuum state of any fuel oscillation must be half of the tiny Planck constant times the frequency of that ...
 03:12: It's where photon energy is equal to the Planck energy, or 10 to the power of 19 giga electron volts.
 03:31: ... up the vacuum energy, including virtual photons, all the way up to the Planck energy, we get a finite number a very, very large finite ...
 07:43: ... of magnitude if we use the electroweak energy cutoff instead of the Planck energy ...


20171025: The Missing Mass Mystery
 09:10: ... both used the latest Planck satellite CMB map in the presumed locations of largescale structure ...


20171019: The Nature of Nothing
 14:26: ... span a large range, but always have a distribution characterized by the Planck law, basically a lopsided bell ...


20171011: Absolute Cold
 02:23: This is the blackbody radiation described by Planck's Law.


20170802: Dark Flow
 06:33: And the strongest challenge came from the team behind the Planck satellite.
 06:38: Planck is the latest cosmic microwave background probe, and it's produced a much more detailed map compared to WMAP.
 06:44: Analyzing around 1,000 clusters using the new data, the Planck satellite team say that no dark flow is apparent.
 06:52: ... team, as well as some other researchers, also redid their work with the Planck data and claim the dark flow is still very ...


20170719: The Real Star Wars
 14:51: ... to infinity sounds a lot like the ultraviolet catastrophe of the preMax Planck description of black body ...


20170628: The First Quantum Field Theory
 04:08: This is exactly how light behaves, as was first realized by Max Planck and proved by Einstein.
 04:51: Quantum physics may have started with Planck's discovery of the quantum nature of light.


20170621: AntiMatter and Quantum Relativity
 00:50: By the late 1920s, Einstein and Planck had already shown that light is a particle, as well as a wave.
 05:55: It contains the marks of both quantum mechanics, in the Planck constant, and relativity, in the speed of light.
 12:40: ... bluer than the rest method." Detailed statistical analysis of the entire Planck CMB map pointed to that region as being a significant ...


20170111: The EM Drive: Fact or Fantasy?
 07:28: To exchange momentum with virtual particles over a distance longer than a Planck length, those particles need to become real.


20160803: Can We Survive the Destruction of the Earth? ft. Neal Stephenson
 12:49: ... given that this is 100 times smaller than the Planck length for anything within a human's mass, getting doubleslit ...


20160727: The Quantum Experiment that Broke Reality
 02:13: ... effect but his clue came from the quantized energy levels of Max Planck's blackbody radiation ...


20160706: Juno to Reveal Jupiter's Violent Past
 10:28: We recently talked about the origin of quantum theory with Max Planck's derivation of an equation to describe the black body spectrum.


20160622: Planck's Constant and The Origin of Quantum Mechanics
 00:03: ... episode is supported by "The Great Courses Plus." The Planck constant defines the size scale at which the familiar physics of our ...
 00:23: In fact, you can see the effect of this quantum behavior and even measure the Planck constant just by observing the color of sunlight.
 01:45: The tiny Planck constant, at 6.63 by 10 to the minus 34 joule seconds, sets the scale of this quantum blurriness.
 02:04: In fact, the Planck constant appears in essentially all equations that describe quantum phenomena.
 02:26: It also sets the size of the Planck length, which is, hypothetically, the length below which the concept of length loses meaning.
 02:36: It may define the scale of quantum reality, but the influence of the Planck constant can be seen even on our scale.
 02:49: If the Planck constant were 25% smaller, the sun would be violet, all else being equal.
 07:02: German physicist Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck resolved the catastrophe almost by accident.
 07:48: That number became the Planck constant.
 07:58: It allowed Planck to equipartition energy in a way that solved the ultraviolet catastrophe.
 08:11: Planck's new equation described the shape of the blackbody spectrum exactly, across all frequencies of light.
 08:18: It became Planck's law.
 08:21: Now Max Planck didn't originally think that these quantized energy levels were real.
 08:40: In that case, the Planck constant would have canceled out in the final equation, but it didn't.
 08:47: The Planck constant is firmly entrenched in the Planck blackbody law.
 08:55: Now the actual value of the Planck constant still had to be measured.
 08:59: ... it was possible to do this just by varying the constant until the Planck law matched the observed ...
 09:10: ... once you know the Planck law and an object's temperature, you can calculate the Planck constant ...
 09:23: As usual, it took Albert Einstein to fully understand the physics behind Planck's strange quantized vibrations.
 09:52: ... Planck's discovery was the clue Einstein needed to hypothesize the existence of ...
 10:13: It got him the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics, shortly following Planck's Nobel of 1918.
 10:27: And that little number that Max Planck came up with in his moment of desperation the Planck constant remains at the heart of all things quantum.
 10:38: ... defining the shape of the blackbody spectrum, the Planck constant can be read in the color of the sun and the stars, in the ...


20160601: Is Quantum Tunneling Faster than Light?
 02:33: In fact, it's the minuscule Planck constant divided by momentum.
 02:37: ... de Broglie wavelengths a couple of orders of magnitude smaller than the Planck ...


20160302: What’s Wrong With the Big Bang Theory?
 04:15: That's the Planck length.


20160203: Will Mars or Venus Kill You First?
 10:11: For one thing, we don't have a theory of quantum gravity to get us into the Planck era.


20160127: The Origin of Matter and Time
 07:36: Even the Planck scale realm.


20160106: The True Nature of Matter and Mass
 09:19: ... time, because the interchange happens on time scales shorter than the Planck ...


20151209: How to Build a Black Hole
 09:29: But what happens to these as the star approaches an infinitesimal point, the Planck scale?


20151028: Is The Alcubierre Warp Drive Possible?
 08:36: ... I doubt that Max Planck and Schrodinger and Bohr imagined that this crazy theory would lead to ...


20150923: Does Dark Matter BREAK Physics?
 08:21: The time interval that encompasses all future everything approaches zero, or at least the Planck time.


20150527: Habitable Exoplanets Debunked!
 10:09: ... of the SI kilogram in terms of fundamental constants of nature, like Planck's constant and the speed of ...


20150311: What Will Destroy Planet Earth?
 05:29: ... ESA's Planck satellite measured, among other things, a few properties of this ...
 05:43: ... on Planck's 2014 data, sometime between 100 billion and a few trillion years from ...
 06:07: ... Ripless future is also within Planck's margin of error and The Big Rip scenario has other issues that make a ...
 06:15: ... if Planck's bestfit numbers do stand up to further experiments, I mean, having your ...
