
20220824: What Makes The Strong Force Strong?
 17:53: ... tool to describe fluctuation quantum fields, what does that mean for Hawking radiation? ...
 18:07: After all, Hawking radiation is sometimes portrayed as a virtual particleantiparticle pair being separated by a black hole event horizon.
 18:49: I suggest searching for hawking radiation in our channel’s search window of an unreasonably deep dive into all of that.


20220622: Is Interstellar Travel Impossible?
 18:11: ... from the entangled particles that emerge from a black hole as Hawking radiation, could we in principle learn about the inside of the black hole, given ...
 18:31: ... answer is yes  if hawking radiation really is entangled with the black hole then in principle we can learn ...
 19:18: The answer is that we’ve never detected hawking radiation, but several lines of pretty sound reasoning indicate it must be real.
 19:45: Check out our hawking radiation episode for a pretty details description.


20220615: Can Wormholes Solve The Black Hole Information Paradox?
 03:20: ... But those virtual particle pairs are entangled, which means that Hawking radiation and the interior of the black hole are entangled. The ...
 04:44: ... might wonder if the Hawking radiation itself can serve as an escape route for that ...
 05:20: ... information leaks out this way, then the von Neumann entropy of Hawking radiation should rise over time as more and more radiation is ...
 08:14: ... as its geometry changes with each outgoing particle of Hawking radiation. ...
 08:36: ... to get a proper calculation of the von Neuman entropy of Hawking radiation, you need to consider all transitional states of the evaporating ...
 11:13: ... you end up with a new equation for the entropy of the Hawking radiation. ...
 12:09: ... island rule, the physicists found that the von Neumann entropy of Hawking radiation exactly follows the Page curve. Somehow these imaginary ...


20220504: Space DOES NOT Expand Everywhere
 11:22: ... to something called the transplanckian problem, which is to do with how Hawking radiation seems to emerge from subPlanckwavelength radiation at the event ...


20220420: Does the Universe Create Itself?
 16:10: ... of you asked about the possibility of detecting Hawking radiation in the case that the universe is a black hole. Actually, we should ...


20220330: Could The Universe Be Inside A Black Hole?
 10:48: ... Stephen Hawking once showed that if a black hole is leaking its mass via Hawking radiation in perfect equilibrium with the radiation that it absorbs  for example, ...


20220216: Is The Wave Function The Building Block of Reality?
 18:15: ... asks a related question, but now it’s for black holes that shrink due to Hawking radiation. This is a lot more speculative. Some physicists think that the Hawking ...
 18:37: ... a black hole, but in its formation, but in its original formulation Hawking radiation is supposed to be completely random  information free  and so that ...


20220127: How Does Gravity Escape A Black Hole?
 09:56: That’s ignoring the whole Hawking radiation, black hole evaporation thing.


20211220: What Happens If A Black Hole Hits Earth?
 03:00: ... then they'd have all evaporated by now by leaking away their mass in Hawking radiation. ...


20211117: Are Black Holes Actually Fuzzballs?
 03:13: Black holes evaporate by emitting Hawking radiation.
 03:17: ... talked about this previously, but the TL;DW is that Hawking radiation should be completely random, and so leaks away the black hole’s mass ...
 07:53: For instance, the profile of the radiation emitted by the strings precisely matched that of traditional Hawking radiation.


20210525: What If (Tiny) Black Holes Are Everywhere?
 01:01: He showed that black holes must radiate, and so slowly leak away their mass in what we now call Hawking radiation.
 01:35: To understand Planck relics we need a quick review of Hawking radiation.
 02:36: In the common popsci description of Hawking radiation you often hear about particleantiparticle pairs appearing at the event horizon.
 03:08: ... such black holes the Hawking radiation is just photons  electromagnetic waves with kilometerslong ...
 03:25: But as the black hole shrinks in mass and in size, its Hawking radiation also decreases in wavelength  but it increases in energy.
 03:45: ... and we only have black holes, which one by one vanish in bright pops of Hawking radiation. ...
 03:57: These days most physicists agree that Hawking radiation is a thing.
 04:26: ... near the black hole with a very distant zerogravity region where the Hawking radiation is ...
 06:05: In which case the Hawking radiation ceases, and the black hole becomes stable.
 06:11: If it happens at all, it’ll be when the average energy of the Hawking radiation is close to the entire restmass energy of the remaining black hole.
 09:02: ... is that they may solve a vexing difficulty that was introduced with Hawking radiation  the black hole information ...


20210511: How To Know If It's Aliens
 14:48: ... extreme curvature in the warp bubble walls should produce something like Hawking radiation, which may obliterate anything trying to ride in a warp ...


20210413: What If Dark Matter Is Just Black Holes?
 06:06: We can rule these out because by now all of these would have evaporated as Hawking radiation.


20200720: The Boundary Between Black Holes & Neutron Stars
 13:34: ... the black hole shrank  but it would itslef be as hopelessly scrambled hawking radiation. ...


20200630: Dissolving an Event Horizon
 05:29: Normal black holes leak their mass away by emitting Hawking radiation.
 05:45: In very massive black holes the Hawking radiation has trouble mustering the energy for anything but weak photons.
 06:21: Hawking radiation is a direct result of there being an event horizon.


20200622: Building Black Holes in a Lab
 03:26: ... of fluid flow resembles a black hole  right down to the emission of Hawking radiation. The details are a bit dense for YouTube, but I’ll link a lovely paper by ...
 05:25: ... horizons, physicists can look for black holelike behavior. For example, Hawking radiation. All the gory details of hawking radiation are in our previous episode, ...
 06:33: ... of the surface ripples have properties that are closely analogous to Hawking radiation. One aspect of Hawking radiation that can only be studied with analog ...
 09:19: ... useful as classical analogs are, Hawking radiation is ultimately a quantum mechanical effect. Deeper insights may require ...
 10:13: ... as with real black holes, some atoms do escape as Hawking radiation. Here you can measure not just the existence, but also the temperature of ...
 11:04: ... real black holes? Early arguments in the late ‘90s claimed that because Hawking radiation should appear for a variety of systems—you just need some sort of ...
 11:55: ... acknowledge the experimental evidence of analog Hawking radiation in these other systems means something, and may be complementary ...
 12:34: ... the bathtub vortex may give us the next great insight into black holes, Hawking radiation, and the nature of the underlying, you guessed it, ...


20200615: What Happens After the Universe Ends?
 07:06: ... will die and their remnants will decay  black holes will evaporate by Hawking radiation, and particles of matter will decay into their lightest possible ...


20200428: Space Time Livestream: Ask Matt Anything
 00:00: ... black holes may actually of quantum information even through their hawking radiation and to answer why I'm gonna read the question from from Bob dead I ...


20200127: Hacking the Nature of Reality
 11:58: ... understanding the internal physics, Steven Hawking's derivation of Hawking Radiation. ...


20191015: Loop Quantum Gravity Explained
 11:20: ... has some other successes, for example, the theory seems to predict Hawking radiation and black hole entropy consistent with Hawking and Bekenstein’s ...


20190410: The Holographic Universe Explained
 02:01: Steven Hawking confirmed the Bekenstein bound by calculating the amount of information leaked by a black hole as it evaporated in Hawking radiation.
 02:11: ... discovery of Hawking radiation led to the black hole information paradox, because this radiation was ...
 02:30: ... that fell into the black hole could be imprinted on that outgoing Hawking radiation. ...


20190403: The Edge of an Infinite Universe
 08:09: The most famous use of this is by Steven Hawking, as we saw in our Hawking radiation episode.
 08:44: He concluded that the black hole must generate particles – Hawking radiation.


20181107: Why String Theory is Right
 15:40: Those horizons perturb the vacuum which can lead to the creation of very real particles, as in Hawking radiation.


20181031: Are Virtual Particles A New Layer of Reality?
 00:21: Near black holes, virtual matter and antimatter pairs are separated by the event horizon to create Hawking radiation.
 10:59: The classic example of this is Hawking radiation.
 11:50: ... also did episodes on these, and just like with Hawking radiation, you don't need for virtual particles to have an independent existence to ...


20181018: What are the Strings in String Theory?
 14:22: ... mentioned in the video that you'd read off the result in Hawking radiation, which would take until long after the last star in universe has died to ...
 14:33: The slow readout by Hawking radiation is equivalent to the time dilation issue.


20181010: Computing a Universe Simulation
 10:26: ... you can only read out the simulation results in Hawking radiation as those black holes evaporate, which will take 10 to the power of 70 ...


20180920: Quantum Gravity and the Hardest Problem in Physics
 03:33: ... from the universe, especially when those black holes evaporate via Hawking radiation. ...
 03:50: But that same Hawking radiation offers part of the solution to the information paradox.
 03:54: ... by black holes can be radiated back out into the universe via their Hawking radiation. ...
 04:07: In a sense, both the source and the solution to the information paradox came from the discover of Hawking radiation.
 12:57: If our modern understanding of Hawking radiation is right, they will evaporate catastrophically long before they reach you.


20180912: How Much Information is in the Universe?
 13:24: Spencer Twiddy is amused at my use of the word "prompt" for the time scale of evaporation by Hawking radiation.


20180905: The Black Hole Entropy Enigma
 02:55: From there it could be imprinted on the outgoing Hawking radiation, allowing the information to escape back into the universe.
 05:30: And then why not radiate the entropy back into the universe as Hawking radiation?
 06:09: So you know how nothing can escape black holes, ignoring Hawking radiation for the moment.
 06:48: But there's one property of black holes that no process other than Hawking radiation can decrease.
 08:56: In 1974, a year after Bekenstein's first paper on blackhole thermodynamics, Hawking published his first Hawking radiation paper.


20180823: How Will the Universe End?
 07:38: But all black holes evaporate over time via Hawking radiation, something we've discussed in detail.
 08:14: ... holes themselves can be used as engines through Hawking radiation, as we've also discussed previously, but also via other mechanisms that ...
 11:14: ... to the power of 10 to the power of 26 years, then promptly evaporate by Hawking radiation. ...


20180620: The Black Hole Information Paradox
 00:44: It gradually leaks away through Hawking radiation over unthinkably long time scales.
 00:50: But in a way, that same Hawking radiation may be more destructive than the black hole itself.
 00:59: The apparent destruction of quantum information by Hawking radiation defies our current understanding of quantum mechanics.
 02:38: But this is where Hawking radiation comes in.
 02:40: Hawking radiation is like a cosmic whiteboard eraser.
 03:20: In other words, Hawking radiation should look exactly like the thermal radiation of heat.
 03:39: The key here is that Hawking radiation doesn't depend at all on what the black hole is made of.
 04:41: ... quantumfield theory are correct as we currently understand them, then Hawking radiation must exist, and it must erase quantum ...
 05:55: The competing idea is that the information of everything that falls into the black hole becomes imprinted on the Hawking radiation itself.
 06:49: To resolve the bet, physicists had to figure out how quantum information could be transferred to Hawking radiation.
 06:59: One, there's no known mechanism for that infalling stuff to leave enough of an information imprint to affect Hawking radiation.
 07:16: ... turns out that by transferring quantum information to Hawking radiation, you may still violate the law of conservation of information just as ...
 09:03: And, in principle, those distortions could potentially influence outgoing Hawking radiation, allowing them to carry away their information.
 10:00: ... how the information on an event horizon gets attached to Hawking radiation is still contentious, but a number of physicists have proposed ...
 10:28: ... him the ashes of one to better reflect the scrambled information in Hawking radiation. ...
 10:51: ... suggests that each particle of Hawking radiation should be simultaneously entangled with the interior of the black hole ...


20180613: What Survives Inside A Black Hole?
 13:53: ... most likely get radiated back out over countless of billions of years as Hawking radiation where it can be collected and giggled at by a future superadvanced ...


20180523: Why Quantum Information is Never Destroyed
 09:50: That's the case of black holes and Hawking radiation.


20180509: How Gaia Changed Astronomy Forever
 09:44: A popular one seems to be, rotating black holes or harvesting Hawking radiation from black holes.


20180411: The Physics of Life (ft. It's Okay to be Smart & PBS Eons!)
 12:59: ... horizon should produce a type of Hawking radiation, but its wavelength would be comparable to the distance to that horizon, ...
 13:17: The inflating universe should have been bathed in intense Hawking radiation.


20180404: The Unruh Effect
 06:00: And just as with Hawking radiation, that horizon cuts off your access to certain fundamental frequency modes of the quantum vacuum.
 06:31: Those particles should have the same type of spectrum as Hawking radiation, a thermal spectrum.
 06:47: In the case of Hawking radiation, an inertial observer far from the black hole sees the radiation.
 07:00: The only observers who don't see Hawking radiation are those plummeting in freefall towards the event horizon.
 10:29: ... seen by someone hovering at the event horizon and the particles of Hawking radiation seen by a distant ...


20180315: Hawking Radiation
 00:30: This is "Space Time." And it's time for Hawking radiation.
 01:43: They should admit what we now know as Hawking radiation.
 01:47: There's a popular description of how Hawking radiation works.
 02:40: ... quantum field theory of curved space time to glimpse the true nature of Hawking radiation. ...
 07:14: The nature of the lost modes tells us what Hawking radiation should look like.
 08:51: Remember that Hawking radiation has wavelengths the size of the event horizon, the size of the entire black hole.
 09:06: Hawking radiation must appear to come from the global black hole.
 09:36: We'll look at its relationship to Hawking radiation in the future.
 09:39: By the way, Hawking radiation is mostly going to be photons and other massless particles.
 10:17: ... example, in 2001, Parikh and Wilczek got the same thermal spectrum for Hawking radiation by thinking about particles escaping from beneath the event horizon ...
 11:00: It's hard to make Hawking radiation go away in the math.
 11:13: Without a full quantum theory of gravity, the origin of Hawking radiation will remain mysterious.
 11:32: ... then there's the famous information paradox in which Hawking radiation appears to destroy what should be a conserved quantity quantum ...


20180124: The End of the Habitable Zone
 11:50: [INAUDIBLE] makes a good point about the pop sci explanation of Hawking radiation.
 12:13: In fact, as far as I know, there is no derivation of Hawking radiation that invokes the splitting of particleantiparticle pairs.


20180117: Horizon Radiation
 01:53: ... coming episodes, we will be delving into Hawking radiation and the Unruh effect, both of which are very similar and are results of ...
 02:03: ... are a couple of compelling, but inaccurate explanations of Hawking radiation around, and here at Space Time, we want to be as simple as we can, but ...
 11:46: In upcoming episodes, we'll apply these ideas to finally understand Unruh and Hawking radiation.


20171206: Understanding the Uncertainty Principle with Quantum Fourier Series
 00:16: ... Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and ultimately, quantum fields and Hawking radiation. ...
 01:25: If we fully unravel this idea, we'll be on the verge of tackling things like Hawking radiation.
 10:12: So what does this oldschool quantum mechanics have to do with quantum field theory and Hawking radiation?
 11:01: ... how the quantum vacuum changes to give us phenomena like Unruh and Hawking radiation, which you will soon understand as some of the weirdest behaviors of ...


20171122: Suicide Space Robots
 12:39: So thanks for keeping us straight Tommy Atkins asks what about Hawking radiation?
 12:46: Hawking radiation is related to this whole vacuum energy virtual particle thing.
 12:53: This stuff is just a prelude to doing Hawking radiation and doing it properly.


20171025: The Missing Mass Mystery
 12:21: ... speed of light, can't they escape the event horizon of black holes via Hawking radiation? ...


20171019: The Nature of Nothing
 03:07: We'll come back to those when we talk about Hawking radiation in the future.


20161221: Have They Seen Us?
 14:57: ... so the final burst of Hawking radiation as a black hole evaporates will be accompanied by all of the remaining ...
 15:16: Its matter became part of the black hole and reemerges as that Hawking radiation.


20161208: What Happens at the Event Horizon?
 01:07: ... ignoring the complications of Hawking radiation or black hole rotational growth, the simplest black hole of Einstein's ...


20161116: Strange Stars
 13:09: ... I'm going to have to go through the black hole information paradox, Hawking radiation, some string theory, the holographic principle, other ...


20161012: Black Holes from the Dawn of Time
 04:19: They would have all evaporated away due to Hawking radiation.
 07:24: ... course, primordial black holes that have already evaporated due to Hawking radiation definitely are not dark matter, and that rules out any PBHs lighter than ...
 09:38: However, through a deposit something like a billion joules of Hawking radiation on its way through.


20160824: Should We Build a Dyson Sphere?
 07:22: ... can be harvested from a black hole, either from the Hawking radiation, from heat generated from infalling material, or by extracting angular ...
 07:43: ... the Hawking radiation from an artificial black hole is appealing, because once formed, we ...
 07:54: ... to pump new matter into the protonsized Kugelblitz against the tide of Hawking radiation. ...


20151028: Is The Alcubierre Warp Drive Possible?
 04:21: One possible quantum disaster is that the extreme spacetime curvature of the warp bubble walls would roast the interior with crazy Hawking radiation.


20151015: 5 REAL Possibilities for Interstellar Travel
 08:07: A black hole of the right size radiates Hawking radiation like crazy.


20150923: Does Dark Matter BREAK Physics?
 08:53: Agen0000, and others, pointed out that Hawking radiation will eventually cause a black hole to evaporate.
 09:07: And would this save the monkey;s life or fry it in an eternity of Hawking radiation?
 09:26: And so in its reference frame, the rate of Hawking radiation is not time dilated.
 09:30: The idea of the event horizon as this boiling hot sea of Hawking radiation isn't right.
 10:07: The distant observer does witness the instance that the black hole evaporates, with a huge burst of Hawking radiation.


20150819: Do Events Inside Black Holes Happen?
 00:24: That means no Hawking radiation, no string theory, and no quantum anything baby steps.


20150401: Is the Moon in Majora’s Mask a Black Hole?
 06:11: Well, Hawking radiation, for one.
